2014年高考英语一轮复习专题攻读:最全面的非谓语动词大集合

2013-08-09

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     非谓语动词是历年
高考英语的重要考点之一,也是较难掌握的难点之一。它贯穿于英语学习和考试过程的始终。但是,只要认真分析、透彻理解、看透本质、准确把握,就一定能在高考中运筹帷幄,游刃有余。

[L][L]      一.非谓语动词区别简表
[/L]
[L]类别区别
to do


doing


done


含义


表示主动、被动或将来


表示主动或(正在)进行


表示被动或完成


句子成分


(名词)主语、宾语、表语、同位语(不定式)定语(将来)、状语、补语、独立成分


(动名词)主语、宾语、表语、同位语、定语(表用途)(现在分词)定语(正在发生)、状语、  补语、表语(表特征)、独立成分


(过去分词)作定语(完成)、状语、补语、表语(表状态)


否定形式


notto do


(not)doing


(not)done


时态形式


一般式:to do(不定式作名词:无时间性或在谓语动词后发生。不定式:与谓语动词动作同时或在之后发生)进行式:to be doing(与谓语动词         动作同时发生)完成式:to have done(表示动作发        生在谓语动词动作之前)完成进行式:to have been doing(在谓语动词动作之前已经发生且持续到主句动作时,仍在进行)


一般式:doing(动名词:无时间性或在谓语动作前发生。现在分词:与谓语动词动作同时、在之前或之后发生)进行式:本身(同上)完成式:having done(作现在分词时,只作状语,强调动作发生在谓语动词动作之前)完成进行式:


一般式:done(vt分词表被动或完成;vi分词   表主动或完成)进行式:无完成式:本身(同一般式)完成进行式:无    


语态形式


一般被动式:to be done (将来动作)进行被动式:无完成被动式:to have been done            (强调动作发生在主句             动作之前)完成进行被动式:


一般被动式:being done(不作状语)进行被动式:本身完成被动式:having been done(只           作状语,强调动作发生           在主句动作之前)完成进行被动式:


一般被动式:本身(与一般           式相同)进行被动式:完成被动式:本身(与一般           式相同)完成进行被动:无


状语类型


目的状语、条件状语、原因状语、结果状语


时间状语、条件状语、原因状语、结果状语、方式状语、伴随状语、让步状语


时间状语、条件状语、原因状语、方式状语、伴随状语、让步状语

1(名词)to do, doing的区别⒈二者都可表示普遍的、一般的的真理、见解或信念等。  [/L]
[L]eg: To do morning exercises/ Doing morning exercises is good for your health.[/L]


[L]⒉不定式表示尚未发生的动作;动名词暗示已经存在。  [/L]
[L]eg: My father is a millionaire, but having money doesn't mean everything.[/L]


[L]⒊动名词表示一般的经验;不定式表示具体的、特定的事例、意见或理论。  [/L]
[L]eg:[/L]
[L]①I prefer swimming to fishing.     [/L]
[L]②I like to swim in the river because it's too hot today.[/L]


[L]⒋不定式和动名词都有对称性。 [/L]
[L]eg:[/L]
[L]①To see is to believe.     [/L]
[L]②Seeing is believing. [/L]


[L]⒌作主语时to do, doing的区别 [/L]
[L]⑴表示泛指、一般、抽象或一个已经完成了的动作时,强调的是事情本身,多用动名词doing作主语。  [/L]
[L]⑵表示具体某一次行为,特别是将来的动作时,强调的是动词本身,必须用不定式作主语。[/L]
[L]注:表示泛指意义时,多用动名词doing(也可用动词不定式to do[/L]


[L]⒍作宾语时to do, doing的区别  [/L]
[L]⑴doing表示泛指,一般,经常性,习惯性的动作。  [/L]
[L]⑵to do表示特定,具体,将来的动作。[/L]


[L]⒎作表语时to do, doing的区别[/L]
[L]  ⑴表示一般的概念时,二者可以互换。[/L]
[L]  ⑵表示具体的动作或将来的行为时,应用不定式to do
[/L]
[L]⒏不定式to do,现在分词doing作补语时的区别[/L]
[L]  ⑴不定式to do作补语表示宾语所做的动作或者和宾语有表语关系,表示状态、特性、身份等。另[/L]
[L]  外,不定式可作使役动词、感官动词的补语,表示动作的完成或已经结束。[/L]
[L]  ⑵doing表示动作与主语动作同时发生或进行。[/L]
[L]  ⑶不定式to do作补语一般表示动作的全过程或经常性发生的动作。[/L]
[L]  ⑷doing强调动作的延续性,表示动作正在发生或进行,更具描述性。
[/L]
[L]⒐不定式to do,现在分词doing作结果状语时的区别[/L]
[L]  ⑴to do表示出乎意料的不想要的结果。[/L]
[L]  ⑵doing表示自然而然的结果。[/L]
[L]注2:非谓语动词的区别问题[/L]
[L](一)动词后接to do不定式还是doing动名词的情况:[/L]
[L](1)只能接to do不定式的动词有:[/L]
[L]want, wish, hope, long, expect, desire, intend, decide, ask, promise, aim, offer, agree, plan, learn, choose, refuse, fail, manage, pretend等。[/L]
[L](2)常只用动名词作宾语的动词有:admit, avoid, appreciate, consider(考虑)dislike, enjoy, escape, excuse, finish, imagine, keep, mind, miss, practice, risk, resist, suggest等。[/L]
[L](3)动词后二者都可跟,意义不同的有:[/L]
[L]remember to do sth     记起要做某事[/L]
[L]remember doing sth     记起做过某事[/L]
[L]forget to do sth       忘记要做某事[/L]
[L]forget doing sth       忘记做过某事[/L]
[L]regret to do sth       后悔要做某事[/L]
[L]regret doing sth       后悔做过某事[/L]
[L]go on to do sth        接着做另外一件事[/L]
[L]go on doing sth        接着做同一件事[/L]
[L]stop to do sth         停下来开始做另外一件某事[/L]
[L]stop doing sth         停止做正在做的某事[/L]
[L]try to do sth          尽力做某事[/L]
[L]try doing sth          试着做某事[/L]
[L]mean to do sth         打算(意欲,企图)做某事[/L]
[L]mean doing sth         意味着做某事[/L]
[L]can’t help(to)do sth  不能帮忙做某事[/L]
[L]can’t help doing sth  情不自禁地做某事              [/L]
[L](4)动词后二者都可跟,意义相同的有:begin, start, like, love, prefer, hate等。但是区别在于:后接动名词时表示经常性的动作,后接不定式时表示的是具体的特定的动作。[/L]
[L]eg: I like playing football, but I don’t like play now.[/L]
[L]注:重点提示:在下列情况下beginstart后只接不定式:[/L]
[L]⑴主语是物不是人。[/L]
[L]eg: Spring came on and the snow began to melt.[/L]
[L]⑵二者用于进行时     eg: It’s beginning to rain.[/L]
[L]⑶二者后接表示心理活动或状态的动词。                      [/L]
[L]eg: I began to realize how stupid I was.[/L]
[L]⑷二者后接不定式的被动式。                   [/L]
[L]eg: The new type of computer began to be developed in the 1980's.[/L]
[L](二)感官动词+宾语+宾补(to do sth/doing sth的区别[/L]
[L]感官动词+宾语+宾补(to do sth)表示事实或全过程[/L]
[L]感官动词+宾语+宾补(doing sth)表示片段或进行[/L]
[L]eg:①The missing boys were last seen playing near the river.[/L]
[L]   ②Did you see a pencil-box lying on the ground just now.
[/L]
[L]()个别使让动词+宾语+宾补的一些特别词的用法[/L]
[L]1have+宾语+宾补[/L]
[L]   have+宾语+do“做某事,不定式作宾补可以指现在、将来或可能发生的动作。[/L]
[L]eg:①They had me repeat the message.[/L]
[L]   ②I won’t have you say such things.[/L]

③I won’t have you blame it on me.
[L]2have+宾语+doing “一直/持续做某事,现在分词作宾补可以表示主语有意让别人去做或无意引起某人可能去做或表示遭遇。另外,have+宾语+doing若用于否定句中,have意为容忍[/L]
[L]eg:①Tom tried to have her talking. But no use.[/L]
[L]   ②I won’t have you speaking to your parents like that.[/L]
[L]   ③Why should we have the boy standing in the corner the whole morning.[/L]
[L]3have+宾语+done “使被做过去分词作宾补可表示主语有意识的行为或表示遭遇经历(动作违背主语的意愿)[/L]
[L]eg:①We ought to have her examined by a doctor.[/L]
[L]   ②The old woman had her handbag stolen.[/L]
[L]2get+宾语+宾补[/L]
[L]get+宾语+to do(have+宾语+do) “做某事有时则是说服/劝说某人做某事[/L]
[L]eg: I will get the publisher to illustrate(加上插图) the book. [/L]
[L]get+宾语+doing“使(静的物体)动起来,具有进行含义。[/L]
[L]eg: I shall soon get the machine working.[/L]
[L]3get+宾语+done“被做用法与have+宾语+done基本相同。[/L]
[L]eg: He got his wrist broken.
[/L]
[L]二.非谓语动词具体用法详述[/L]
[L]Ⅰ不定式的用法[/L]
[L]不定式不可作谓语,但它可以有自己的宾语、状语,构成不定式短语,在句中可以作主语、宾语、表语、定语(表用途)、状语或补足语。高考对不定式的考查主要有不定式的时态、语态、作用、否定、省略、连词+不定式等。[/L]
[L]1.不定式作主语[/L]
[L]不定式作主语表示具体的动作,通常指一件已知的事或目的。[/L]
[L]不定式作主语时,谓语动词用单数。[/L]
[L]   eg: To say is a thing, to do is another.(说是一回事,做是另外一回事。)[/L]
[L](2)不定式短语较长时,通常放在谓语之后,用it作形式主语。[/L]
[L]eg:①It is important to learn English well.(学好英语是重要的。)[/L]
[L]②It is necessary for us to do the job well.(我们做好这项工作是必要的。)[/L]
[L]③It is a great honor to be invited to give a speech here.被邀请在这儿发表演讲是一个极大的荣幸。[/L]
[L]2.不定式作宾语[/L]
[L](1to do表示特定,具体,将来的动作。常只用不定式作宾语的动词有(记忆口诀:想要拒绝忘记,需要努力学习;喜欢同意帮助,希望决定开始)want, wish, hope, long, expect, desire, intend, decide, ask, promise, aim, offer, agree, plan, learn, choose, refuse, fail, manage, pretend等。[/L]
[L]  eg:①He refused to help me.(他拒绝帮助我.)[/L]
[L]②She has agreed to come tomorrow.(他已同意明天来.)[/L]
[L](2) 不定式较长时,作宾语,也可用it代替,放在后面。[/L]
[L]  eg; I find it difficult to do the job well.[/L]
[L](3) “特殊疑问词﹢不定式to do结构具有名词特征,可作宾语。[/L]
[L]eg:①She didn't know whether to go or not.[/L]
[L]   ②They haven't decided when and where to build the school.[/L]
[L](4不定式可作介but, except, besides“……之外的宾语,介词前有实义动词do的任何一种形式,后边的不定式就无to;否则必带to[/L]
[L]eg:①I want to do nothing but play the computer games②I have no choice but to wait[/L]
[L]3.不定式作表语[/L]
[L](1不定式作表语放在be和其他系动词后,说明主语的内容。同样,特殊疑问词+不定式具有名词特征,也可作表语。[/L]
[L]eg:①My job is to sweep the floor.[/L]
[L]   ②His goal was to enter the key university of Beijing.[/L]
[L]   ③The first question is how to find a better way to learn English well. [/L]
[L](2)不定式作主语时,表语也必须为不定式,结构必须保持一致。[/L]
[L]eg: To see is to believe.[/L]
[L](3)如果主语部分的谓语动词或非谓语动词是实义动词do的某种形式,那么作表语的不定式可以省去to.[/L]
[L]eg:①The first thing to do is find her. ②The only thing he could do was tell the truth.
[/L]
[L]4.不定式作同位语[/L]
[L]不定式作同位语表示内容。[/L]
[L]eg: His dream to enter a key university came true.
[/L]
[L]5不定式作定语[/L]
[L]不定式作定语表示将来,常放在所修饰的名词或代词后。[/L]
[L]eg:①I have something important to tell you.(不定式与被修饰名词构成被动关系。)[/L]
[L]   ②His wish to be an artist has never come true.( 不定式与被修饰名词构成同位关系。)[/L]
[L]   ③He is the right man to do the job. ( 不定式与被修饰名词构成主动关系。)[/L]
[L]   ④The little girl was unhappy because she had no friends to play with. ( 不定式与被修饰名词[/L]
[L]   构 成主动关系。)(注:若不定式为不及物动词,其后须加上相应的介词。)[/L]
[L]6.不定式作状语[/L]
[L]不定式作状语主要是表示目的、条件、原因和结果,可位于句首或句末,但句首时通常用逗号隔开。[/L]
[L]eg:①We set off early that morning to catch the first bus.(目的)[/L]
[L]   ②To get a good result, she worked very hard.(目的)[/L]
[L]   ③I feel it an honor to be invited to the party.(条件)[/L]
[L]   ④She was very happy to get the first prize.(原因)[/L]
[L]   ⑤He worked hard only to fail.(结果)[/L]
[L]注:⑴不定式常用在so as in order,与它们一起作状语,表示目的,但so as引起的不定式不可置于句首。[/L]
[L]eg: In order to avoid mistakes, check your homework.        [/L]
[L]⑵不定式表结果时常和only连用,往往表示出乎意料的意想不到的不想得到的结果。[/L]
[L]eg: He hurried to the station ,only to find the train had left.[/L]
[L]⑶“形容词+enough+不定式“too+形容词或副词(不表情感)+不定式也可作结果状语。           [/L]
[L]eg:①He is old enough to go to school.  ② He is too weak to raise the stone.[/L]
[L]但“too+表情感形容词(pleased, ready, glad, willing, anxious等)+to do”表示肯定意义,too前面可用only, but等词修饰。[/L]
[L]eg:①They were (only) too anxious to leave.(他们只是太急于离开了。)[/L]
[L]   ②She is(only)too pleased to go home.(她非常高兴可以回家了。)
[/L]
[L]7.不定式作补语[/L]
[L]不定式作补语表示宾语所所做的动作或者和宾语有表语关系,表示状态、特性、身份等。另外,不定式可作使役动词、感官动词的补语,表示动作的完成或已经结束。宾语与作补语的不定式之间是主动关系。[/L]
[L](1)后接动词不定式作宾补的常见的动词有:want, wish, expect, prefer, like, hate, ask, beg, request, require, beg, get, advise, persuade, invite,[/L]
[L]order, remind, permit, allow, send等。[/L]
[L](2)后接动词不定式作宾补的常见的动词短语有:call on, would like/love, arrange for, depend on等。[/L]
[L]eg:①She wanted me to arrive there early. [/L]
[L]   ②Our headmaster call on us to work hard.[/L]
[L](3动词不定式可作感官动词(五看二听一感觉即:see, look at, watch, observe, noticehear, listen tofeel)和使让动词(let, make, have等)后面的宾补时,不定式符号to要省略,但如果句子变被动结构,必须带to.表示动作的完成。[/L]
[L]eg:①He made them climb the hill. [/L]
[L]   ②They were made to climb the hill.
[/L]
[L](4)动词不定式可作形容词的补足语[/L]
[L]动词不定式可作形容词的补足语,句型为:[/L]
[L]()主语+系动词+表语(adjconvenient/easy/expensive/difficult/hard/impossible/pleasant等)+to do.(注:to do常用主动表被动,其中dovt,主语为to do的宾语。)[/L]
[L](二)主语+find/think/consider/believe等+宾语+adjto do.(注:其中to do常用主动表被动,其中dovt,主语为to do的宾语。)[/L]
[L]eg: ①He is easy to fool.[/L]
[L]    ②The man is easy to work with.[/L]
[L]③He find the problem difficult to work out.[/L]
[L](5特殊疑问词+不定式to do”具有名词特征,可作宾补。(谓语动词多为show, know, teach, tell等。)[/L]
[L]eg: I’ll tell you how to get there[/L]
[L]8.不定式作独立成分(评注性状语或插入语)[/L]
[L]不定式可以作评注性状语或插入语,放在句子前面、中间或末尾。常见的有to be frank, to be honest, to tell the truth, to begin withto start with, to be short等。[/L]
[L]eg: To begin with, I think you are wrong.[/L]
[L]Ⅱ动名词用法[/L]
[L]动名词具有动词和名词的特点,有一般式和完成式,有主动式和被动式,可作主语、宾语、表语和定语.否定形式在其前面加not.[/L]
[L](1)动名词作主语[/L]
[L]动名词作主语表示抽象动作,指一件已知的事或经验。[/L]
[L]eg:①Driving a car on the crowded road is boring.[/L]
[L]   ②Reading is my hobby.[/L]
[L](2)动名词作宾语doing作宾语表示泛指,一般,经常性,习惯性的动作。常只用动名词作宾语的动词有:admit, avoid, appreciate, consider, dislike, enjoy, escape, excuse, finish, imagine, keep, mind, miss, practice, risk, resist, suggest等。[/L]
[L]eg:①I can’t imagine marrying her.[/L]
[L]②She managed to escape being punished.[/L]
[L]只接动名词作宾语的动词词组有:give up, belong to, look forward to, keep on, insist on, be busy, get down to, be devoted to, have difficulty/trouble(in),have a good/wonderful time (in)等。[/L]
[L]eg:①I’m looking forward to hearing from you soon.[/L]
[L]   ②He gave up smoking three years.[/L]
[L](3)动名词可作表语[/L]
[L]动名词可作表语,一般为主语的内容.表示一般性或习惯性的动作。在概念上可以和主语划等号。把主语和表语倒过来,句子的基本含义不变。[/L]
[L]eg: His hobby is painting.[/L]
[L](4) )动名词可作同位语 [/L]
[L]动名词可作同位语,表示所修饰事物的内容。[/L]
[L]eg: This is my creation ,reading scary stories.[/L]
[L](5 动名词可作定语[/L]
[L]动名词可作定语,表示所修饰事物的功能或用途。[/L]
[L]eg: He often studies in the reading room.[/L]
[L]Ⅲ现在分词[/L]
[L]现在分词具有动词、形容词和副词的特征,在句中作定语、状语、补语和表语。[/L]
[L]1作定语[/L]
[L]现在分词作定语,单个v-ing放在被修饰的名词前;如果短语作定语,则放在所修饰词的后面。v-ing作定语和被修饰词之间为主动关系,表示动作正在同时进行或经常性发生,也可表示特征。[/L]
[L]eg:①the falling leavesthe leaves which are falling[/L]
[L]   ②the rising sunthe sun which is rising[/L]
[L]   ③I saw him go into the house facing south.[/L]
[L]   ④a good-looking man[/L]
[L]2作状语[/L]
[L]在句子中,现在分词作状语,与句中主语形成逻辑上的主谓关系,表示与主句谓语动词动作同时发生,或没有一定的时间性。[/L]
[L]动词-ing或其短语作状语时,可以表示时间、条件、原因、结果、让步、方式、伴随等。表示时间关系的动词-ing短语可由连词whilewhen引出。[/L]
[L]eg:①Hearing the news, they got excited.(时间)[/L]
[L]②Having finished his homework, she was playing on the playground.(原因/时间)[/L]
[L]③Studying hard, you are sure to get first prize.(条件)[/L]
[L]3作补语[/L]
[L]现在分词作补语表示动作正在进行,宾语与作补语的现在分词之间是主动关系。[/L]
[L]后面常接现在分词作宾补的动词有感官动词(五看二听一感觉see, look at, watch, observe, notice, hear, listen to, feel)使让动词(have, get)以及其他类动词leave, keep, catch, set等。表示动作正在进行。[/L]
[L]eg:①I saw them playing games on the playground yesterday.[/L]
[L]   ②Don’t leave him waiting outside the room.[/L]
[L]4作表语[/L]
[L]现在分词作表语相当于形容词,常表示主语所具有的特征,含有主动意味。大多数使动词的现在分词通常可作表语,常见的有:interesting, amusing, boring, tiring, pleasing, exciting, moving, disappointing,[/L]
[L]surprising, encouraging等。[/L]
[L]eg:①His story was very moving.     ②The speech is really boring.[/L]
[L]5作独立成分(评注性状语或插入语)[/L]
[L]可以作评注性状语或插入语,放在句子前面、中间或末尾。[/L]
[L]注:连词+doing短语一般情况下,分词作状语时,只能根据逻辑关系而不能根据语法特征来判定它是时间状语、条件状语或让步状语等。因此,有时会遇到很难判断其归属的情形。但如果在其前加上when, if, once, since等连词,就会很清楚地表明状语的性质。对于这种结构,也可作另外的解释,即在连词与现在分词之间省略了主语和be动词。[/L]
[L]eg:①While(I was)trying to open the can, I cut my hand.[/L]
[L]   ②Though not understanding(=he didn't understand )french, he he was able to communicate with [/L]
[L]     other Students.[/L]
[L]   ③Be careful when(you are)crossing the road.=Be careful when you cross the road.[/L]
[L]Ⅳ过去分词[/L]
[L]在句子中,过去分词与句中主语形成逻辑上的动宾关系,表示完成或没有一定的时间性。[/L]
[L]过去分词既有副词的特征又有动词的特征,在句中可作定语、状语、补语、表语等成分。[/L]
[L](1)作定语[/L]
[L]过去分词作定语,表示已经完成或特征。它和被修饰词之间是被动、完成关系,单个过去分词作定语放在前,过去分词短语作定语放在后。其中及物动词的过去分词表示完成或被动概念,不及物动词的过去分词只表示完成概念,没有被动的意味。[/L]
[L]eg:①the risen sun the sun which has risen[/L]
[L]   ②fallen leavesleaves which has fallen[/L]
[L]   ③This is the house built last year.This is the house which was built last year.[/L]
[L](2)作状语[/L]
[L]过去分词在句中作状语,说明动作发生的背景或情况。它和被修饰词之间是被动关系。它在句中可以作时间、条件、原因、方式、让步和伴随状语。[/L]
[L]eg:①Tired out, they stopped to have a rest.(原因/时间)[/L]
[L]   ②Taken around the city, we were impressed by the city’s new look.[/L]
[L]   ③Though warned of the danger ,he still went skating on the thin ice. [/L]
[L](3)作补语[/L]
[L]及物动词的过去分词作补语,表示完成意义的行为或状态。及物动词的过去分词亦有被动意义;不及物动词的过去分词仍是主动意义。[/L]
[L](1)可以带过去分词作宾补的动词有感官动词(五看二听一感觉),使役动词have, get, make等,以及其他类动keep, leave, like, want, wish等。[/L]
[L]eg: I had my leg broken last week.[/L]
[L](4)作表语[/L]
[L]过去分词作表语表示被动意义,主语常是人,一般用来表示感受和状态,可以用作表语的常见的过去分词有:astonished, delighted, disappointed, excited, experienced, exhausted, frightened, interested, puzzled, qualitied, satisfied, upset,有些过去分词作表语实际上已经构成固定短语。如:be interested in, be satisfied with, be covered with, be dressed in, be seated, be locked等。能用这些分词作表语的系动词有be, get, remain, stay等。[/L]
[L]eg:①The door remained locked.[/L]
[L]   ②We were greatly encouraged when we heard the speech.[/L]
[L]Ⅴ非谓语动词的独立结构[/L]
[L]非谓语动词的独立结构为名词或代词+非谓语动词“with+名词/代词+非谓语动词。在语法上是一个独立的短语,不是句子(即:非谓语动词的逻辑主语与主句主语不一致,须保留之后所构成的结构)。可放在句首或句尾。[/L]
[L]() 名词或代词+非谓语动词[/L]
[L](1)名词/代词+不定式[/L]
[L]名词或代词通常为动作的执行者,与不定式构成逻辑上的主谓关系,可位于句首或句末。[/L]
[L]eg: He will send me 100 first, the rest to follow in a year.[/L]
[L](2) 名词/代词+现在分词[/L]
[L]名词或代词通常为现在分词所表示的动作的执行者,与现在分词构成逻辑上的主谓关系。[/L]
[L]eg①:Time permitting, we will finish the work.(表条件)[/L]
[L]  ②Spring coming on, the trees turns green.(表时间)[/L]
[L](3)名词/代词+过去分词[/L]
[L]名词或代词通常为过去分词所表示的动作的承受者。与过去分词构成逻辑上的动宾关系或系表关系。[/L]
[L]eg:①The signal given, the bus started.[/L]
[L]②Their strength exhausted, they sank down one by one.[/L]
[L](二)with+名词/代词+非谓语动词[/L]
[L](1with+名词/代词+不定式[/L]
[L]不定式和宾语之间是被动关系,表示动作尚未发生。[/L]
[L]eg: With nothing to do, they went out for a walk.(表原因)[/L]
[L](2)with+名词/代词+现在分词[/L]
[L]宾语和动词-ing之间是主动关系,表示的动作和谓语动词的动作同时发生。[/L]
[L]eg: The boy slept with the light burning.(表伴随)[/L]
[L](3) with+名词/代词+过去分词[/L]
[L]不定式和宾语之间是被动关系,表示动作已经完成。[/L]
[L]eg: They stayed inside with the door locked.(表伴随)
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