英语时态特别现象
时态是英语中谓语动词所表示的动作或状况发生时间的各种形式,是各级各类考试的必考内容。随着高考逐渐向能力考查的过渡,对时态的考查已经由单纯的时态考查逐渐向考查时态中的特殊现象延伸。下面就举例说明英语中常见的几种特殊时态现象。
一、一般现在时的特殊用法
1. 以 here 、 there 等词开头的句子,描述正在发生的动作,谓语动词用一般现在时代替现在进行时。如:
Here comes the bus! There goes the bell!
2. 既定的时间,如生日、日历、计划安排等,常用一般现在时表将来。如:
The meeting starts at five o'clock. The train leaves at three this afternoon.
3. 在 see to it, make sure, make certain, be sure, look out, take care 等短语之后的从句用一般现在(过去、现在完成)时代替一般将来(过去将来、将来完成)时。如:
You must make sure the door is closed before you leave the lab.
See to it that everything is OK.
4. 宾语从句表示客观事实或真理时,一律用一般现在时。如:
Somebody told me that you are a writer.
5. 在由 as soon as, when, before, after, till 等词引导的时间状语从句和由 if , unless , as long as , in case 等词引导的条件状语从句以及方式和让步状语从句中,常用一般现在时代替一般将来时,但主句用一般将来时。如:
If you come this afternoon, We'll have a meeting.
When you meet him, tell him to come to my place.
二 . 一般过去时的特殊用法
1. 表示说话人始料未及的事情,用一般过去时。如:
Oh! I didn't know you were in Shanghai. How long have you been there?
2. wish, would rather 后接的宾语从句, as if 引导的状语从句,以及由“ It is time that …”构成的定语从句中,谓语动词用一般过去时表示现在的事情。如:
It's time you had a holiday. He looks as if he were young.
3. 用表示意愿及精神状态的动词表明说话者探询的态度时,动词用一般过去时表示一般现在时,这样显得更加有礼貌。如:
I didn't know you were here.
我不知道你在这里。( were 实际上指现在)
I wondered if you could help me.
4. 在含有“ hardly / scarcely … when, no sooner … than ”等结构的句子中,主句用过去完成时,从句用一般过去时。(注意:主句一般要倒装)如:
Hardly had I entered the room, when I heard a loud noise.
No sooner had he reached the door than he came back.
三、现在进行时的特殊用法
1. 若句中含有 always, all the time, forever, constantly 等词或短语,用进行时表示频繁发生的动作,表示说话人赞赏或厌恶等感情。如:
You are always forgetting the important things. He is constantly leaving his things behind.
2. 某些词,如 come, go, leave, arrive, start 等可用现在进行时表示将来。如:
He is leaving tomorrow. The visitors are arriving in a few minutes.
四、过去进行时的特殊用法
1. 表示故事发生的背景。如:
It was snowing as they made their way to the front.
2. 与 always , forever, constantly, continually, frequently 等副词连用,表示过去经常发生的行为,往往带有感情色彩。如:
They were frequently quarreling.
五、现在完成时的特殊用法
1. 若句中含有 the first time, a few times, again and again 等表示频率的修饰语时,常用现在完成时。如:
This is the third time we have made improvements in that equipment.
2. 定语从句的先行词是最高级或被形容词最高级修饰时,句子常用现在完成时。如:
Scientists have found almost all metals are good conductors, the best of which is silver.
3. 某些时间状语从句和条件状语从句用现在完成时表示将来完成的动作。如:
I'll go to your home when I have finished my homework.
If it has stopped snowing in the morning, we'll go to the park.
六、过去完成时的特殊用法
1. 某些动词的过去完成时表示原先计划做或打算做而未做的事情。常见的动词有 mean, plan, think, suppose, want, intend 等。如:
We had hoped that you would be able to visit us.
I had intended to make a cake, but I ran out of time.
2. 在条件状语从句以及 which 或 I'd rather 后的宾语从句中,常用过去完成时表示与过去事实相反的假设、推断等(虚拟语气)。如:
If only you had worked with great care! I would rather you had told her the truth.
七、一般将来时的特殊用法
1. 表示一种倾向、固有特性或说话人的推测。如:
I think it will rain tomorrow. Birds will build nests.
2. 在某些条件状语从句、时间状语从句中。如:
We shall go unless it rains. He'll help you if you ask him.
说明: be about to + 动词原形 / be to +动词原形也可表示将来时。如:
She is not to be back late. The film is about to begin.
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