TED演讲 | 如何让你的睡眠更有效率?

▲Daniel Gartenberg博士的研究领域是人类因素和应用认知,目前是宾州州立大学(Penn State University)的兼职助理教授。他目前正在从事可诊断和治疗睡眠障碍的健康环境研究,以改善睡眠质量和优化日间警觉性。


What if you could make your sleep more efficient?


As a sleep scientist, this is the question that has captivated me for the past 10 years.


Because while the lightbulb and technology have brought about a world of 24-hour work and productivity, it has come at the cost of our naturally occurring circadian rhythm and our body's need for sleep.


The circadian rhythm dictates our energy level throughout the day, and only recently we've been conducting a global experiment on this rhythm, which is putting our sleep health and ultimately our life quality in jeopardy .

昼夜节律支配了我们 一整天中的能量多寡,到最近,我们才针对此节律 进行了一项全球性实验,让我们的睡眠健康,以及最终,我们的生命品质, 置身危险之中。

Because of this, we aren't getting the sleep we need, with the average American sleeping a whole hour less than they did in the 1940s.

因为这个理由,我们没有得到我们需要的睡眠,美国人的平均睡眠时间,比 1940 年代整整少了一小时。

For some reason, we decided to wear it as a badge of honor that we can get by on not enough sleep.


This all adds up to a real health crisis.

这些通通加起来, 就成了真实的健康危机。

Most of us know that poor sleep is linked to diseases like Alzheimer's, cardiovascular disease, stroke and diabetes.


And if you go untreated with a sleep disorder like sleep apnea, you're more likely to get many of these illnesses.

如果你有睡眠失调, 像睡眠窒息,却没去治疗,你就更可能会得到许多这类疾病。

But did you know about sleep's impact on your mental states?


Poor sleep makes us make risky, rash decisions and is a drain on our capacity for empathy.


When sleep deprivation literally makes us more sensitive to our own pain, it's not so surprising that we have a hard time relating to others and just generally being a good and healthy person when we're sleep-deprived.

因为缺乏睡眠 真的让我们对痛苦更敏感,那就不足为怪,当我们睡眠不足时,会很难和别人和睦相处,连大体上做个健康的好人都很难。

Scientists are now starting to understand how not only the quantity but also the quality of sleep impacts our health and well-being.


My research focuses on what many scientists believe is the most regenerative stage of sleep: deep sleep.


We now know that generally speaking, there are three stages of sleep: light sleep, rapid eye movement or REM and deep sleep.


We measure these stages by connecting electrodes to the scalp, chin and chest.

我们测量这些阶段的方式, 是把电击贴在头皮、下巴、胸口。

In light sleep and REM, our brain waves are very similar to our brain waves in waking life.


But our brain waves in deep sleep have these long-burst brain waves that are very different from our waking life brain waves.

但深睡时的脑波, 有很多长长的脉冲,和醒着时的脑波很不一样。

These long-burst brain waves are called delta waves.

这些长的脉冲 被称为 δ(delta)波。

When we don't get the deep sleep we need, it inhibits our ability to learn and for our cells and bodies to recover.


Deep sleep is how we convert all those interactions that we make during the day into our long-term memory and personalities.


As we get older, we're more likely to lose these regenerative delta waves.

当我们渐年长,我们就越有可能会失去 这些有再生力的 δ 波。

So in way, deep sleep and delta waves are actually a marker for biological youth.

所以从某个角度来看,深睡与 δ 波其实算是生理年轻的标记。

So naturally, I wanted to get more deep sleep for myself and I literally tried almost every gadget, gizmo, device and hack out there --consumer-grade, clinical-grade, what have you.


I learned a lot, and I found I really do need, like most people, eight hours of sleep.


I even shifted my circadian component by changing my meals, exercise and light exposure, but I still couldn't find a way to get a deeper night of sleep ...that is until I met Dr. Dmitry Gerashchenko from Harvard Medical School.

我什至改变了我的生理节奏,方法是改变我的进餐、运动、 和曝露在光线下的时间,但仍然找不到睡得更深沉的方式,直到我遇到了狄米崔盖瑞山柯博士,他是哈佛教授。

Dmitry told me about a new finding in the literature, where a lab out of Germany showed that if you could play certain sounds at the right time in people's sleep, you could actually make sleep deeper and more efficient.

狄米崔告诉我文献中的一项新发现,一间德国的实验室发现,如果能够在人们睡眠的 正确时间播放某些声音,就能让睡眠更深、更有效。

And what's more, is that this lab showed that you actually could improve next-day memory performance with this sound.


Dmitry and I teamed up, and we began working on a way to build this technology.


With our research lab collaborators at Penn State, we designed experiments in order to validate our system.


And we've since received grant funding from the National Science Foundation and the National Institute of Health to develop this deep-sleep stimulating technology.


Here's how it works.


People came into the lab and we hooked them up to a number of devices, two of which I have on right here -- not a fashion statement.


When we detected that people were in deep sleep, we played the deep-sleep stimulating sounds that were shown to make them have deeper sleep.


I'm going to demo this sound for you right now.


Pretty weird, right?


So that sound is actually at the same burst frequency as your brain waves when your brain is in deep sleep.


That sound pattern actually primes your mind to have more of these regenerative delta waves.

那种声音模式事实上能使你的大脑准备好,产生更多这些有再生力的 δ 波。

When we asked participants the next day about the sounds, they were completely unaware that we played the sounds, yet their brains responded with more of these delta waves.

当我们隔天问受试者这些声音,他们完全没意识到我们曾播放声音,而他们的脑却产生更多的 δ 波以呼应这种声音。

Here's an image of someone's brain waves from the study that we conducted.


See the bottom panel?


This shows the sound being played at that burst frequency.


Now look at the brain waves in the upper part of the graph.


You can see from the graph that the sound is actually producing more of these regenerative delta waves.

从图可以看出,播放这声音就能产生更多有再生力的 δ 波。

We learned that we could accurately track sleep without hooking people up to electrodes and make people sleep deeper.


We're continuing to develop the right sound environment and sleep habitat to improve people's sleep health.


Our sleep isn't as regenerative as it could be, but maybe one day soon, we could wear a small device and get more out of our sleep.


Thank you.


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