英语语法纲要
本资料主要是把重要的语法形态列出(简单的除外),供大家复习英语时参照。
一、
动词时态
一般现在时
表示特征或经常性动作,普遍真理
My boss is in a bad mood today.
Wisdom in mind is better than money in the hand.
一般过去时
I hated going to school. 我以前不喜欢上学(不代表现在)。
u
在阅读中出现过去式不能代表现时的状态
一般将来时
China will increase dialogue and co-operation with the United States and the international community to crack down on all forms of terrorist activities.
u
新闻中常用一般将来时。背诵此句。
I am leaving Shanghai tomorrow.
My parents are coming here next week.
I am taking my CET4 next month.
u
以上三句用现在进行时表示将来时。记住此三句形式。
过去将来时
表示从过去某时看将来
I was going to call you when you came in.
She said she would come.
现在进行时
注意以下两句的的含义:
You are always complaining.
That’s because you are always leaving your dirty socks on the floor!
过去进行时
I was working all weekend.
I was not trying to annoy you.
将来进行时
说明未来某个时刻会发生的事情,中文里没有,英语中常用
1、A:Is Mike free this afternoon?
B:No,he isn’t.He will be attending a meeting.[表示将来的下午在开会!]
2、A:If you have any questions,I will be working in the next office.
B:Great.
现在完成时
She has worked here for three years.
The US has not put as much importance on diplomacy as it should.
She is the most beautiful girl I have ever met![记住句型]
I have never dreamed that I could see you again.
过去完成时
By the end of the year,we had helped 5000 homeless people.
I had never used chopsticks[筷子] before I came to China.
u
一般而言,过去完成时中有过去的时间或过去时态
现在完成进行时
过去某时一直延续到现在,特别强调事情尚要继续或刚刚停止
I have been learning English for ten years.[刚刚停止]
I have been dying to see you since I talked to you on the phone last week.[ 尚要继续]
I have been looking forward to meeting you for a long time.
情态动词
can
表示能力、许可或请求
She can speak three different languages.
You can do anything if you try.
I cannot understand what you mean.
could
表示具有的能力,可能发生的情况,也可表示一个可行的提议
He could speake better.他能说的更好。【注意与can比较】
That could be a good solution.那可能是个不错的办法。
could have
表示过去能够或可能但没有发生的动作或事件
I could have done a lot better.我本来能够做的更好。
I could have been a doctor,I could have been a lawyer,but I choose to be a teacher.
我可以是个医生,可以是个律师,但我选择了做老师。
I could have helped you,but I did not know you were in trouble.
may,might
表示可能发生的事(过去现在将来皆可)
I might have gotten straight A’s this semester.这学期我很可能得A。
I may know by this afternoon.今天下午可能就知道了。
should
You should take care of yourself.
You should go and see a doctor.
Should have
表示本应该做的没有做,主要用于责备他人或自责
You should have worn warmer clothes.你应该穿暖和一点的衣服。
You should have told me it was cold before I left home.那你在我离家前就告诉我。
have to
英国人常用must美国人常用have to,表示必须
I have to go now.
You donot have to come.你没必要来。【句型】
You donot have to tell her.你不必告诉她。
would
表示愿意
I would try Chinese medicine to cure your cold.
must
表示必须或揣测
You must finish the job before five.[必须]
You must be kidding.[揣测]
must have
表示对过去的揣测
I must have left my keys in the car.
非谓语动词
不定式做主语
To become President of the United States used to by goal.
过去我的梦想是成为美国总统。
To be a leader in your own city is a lot more realistic.
不定式当表语
My wish is to be a teacher!
不定式当宾语
I want to become a millionire.我想成为百万富翁。
I cannot afford to buy a car.
We find it impossible to get everything finished in time.
She felt it stupid for him to talk like that.
不定式做宾语补足语
Jim wants you to call him back.
My teacher encouraged me to try again.
Force yourself to do more.逼自己多做点。
不定式当状语
表示原因结果或目的
I will do everything I can to help you.[目的]
What have I said to make you so upset?[结果]
动名词当宾语
常用于以下动词之后:
enjoy,suggest,stop,delay,fancy,consider,admit,miss,involve,finish,postpone,imagine
aviod,deny,risk,practise,give up,put off,go on,keep on,appreciate.
动名词与动词不定式区别
Remember,forget,reget接不定式表示未发生,接动名词表示已经发生
I remember seeing her somewhere,but I donot know her name.
I reget not having accepted your advice.
I reget to tell you I cannot give you any help.
独立主格
当分词的逻辑主语与句子的主语不一样时,在分词前加上逻辑主语
Weather permitting,we will leave for Beijing tomorrow.
All the work finished,you can go home.
句型
被动语句
Rome wasnot built in a day.[被动语过去时]
I donnot like being told what to do.[动名词被动语]
It is said that…
It is belived that…
I am supposed to be meeting the president at 10.
You should get your hair cut.
Jim had all his money stolen while he was on vacation.
比较句
You still look as young as you used to.你还是像以前那样年轻。
I guess I am not as dumb as I used to be!
I can work a lot more efficeintly.
What was your most embarrassing moment?你最窘迫的时候是什么情况?
疑问句
You prefer going by plane,donnot you?[肯定反意疑问]
You wonnot tell anyone else,will you?[否定反意疑问]
Donnot be late again,will you?[祈使句疑问]
间接引语
引用时注意时态转换
The President said that he would launch an attact on terrorism.
He asked me if I would go to dinner with him.
The doctor told me to stay in bed for a new days.
主谓一致
临近原则
Neither he nor they are mistaken.
从句
That引导主语从句
It is great that you got a scholarship.
Whether引导主语从句
Whether he will come or not is unknow.
疑问词引导主语从句
What I told you is between you and me.
That 引导表语从句
The problem is that no one there speaks Chinese.
Whether 引导表语从句
The qustion is whether we can afford a house.
疑问词引导表语从句
The question is who can take his place.
That 引导宾语从句(that可省略)
I think that kim is a good teacher.[注意与引导表语句的区别]
Wether/if引导宾语从句
Do you know if Jim went there last night?
疑问句引导宾语从句
I wonder that Kim has planned for tonight.
She can tell you what is tonight’s homework assignment.
That 引导同位语从句
The rumor that there will be a company merger spread quickly.
公司将要合并的谣言很快就传开了。
Wether 引导同位语从句
We havenot decided the question whether he is capable or not.
下面是状语从句部分,务必弄清其概念,状有状态的含义
时间状语从句
一般由when,while,as,since,after,befor,untill.引导
Donot count your chickens before they are hatched.在小鸡孵出来之前不要数鸡。
I will come when I have time.
She always sings as he works.
I will do it after I finish his work.
I have lived here since I came to this city.
地点状语从句
一般由where、wherever引导
Where there is a will,there is a shadow.有志者事竟成。
She follows him wherever he goes.
条件状语从句
一般由if,unless引导
If you use your head,you will find a way.
You will not pass the examination unless you study hard.
让步状语从句
一般由though,although,even if ,whether引导
Though he was very tired,he did not give up.
I will keep my business going even if have to sell my house.
I am going whether you like it or not.
原因状语从句
一般由because,since,as,for,now,that引导
I did not go because it rained.
As you are evidently very busy,I will not waste your time.既然你显然很忙,我还是不浪费你的时间了。
Now that you have finished your work,you may go,
目的状语从句
一般由that,so that,so..that,in order that引导
I am giving my boy a good education so that he can more easily cope with life’s difficulties.我准备让我儿子接受良好教育,这样他能更容易去处理人生的困难。
结果状语从句
一般由that,so that,such..that,so等引导
I am so sleepy that I cannot keep my eyes open.
It is such beautiful weather that I donot like to stay in the office.
方式状语从句
有as引导
When in Rome,do as the Rome do.入乡随俗。
I did as you told me.
定语从句是用来修饰的,注意与状语从句的区别
关系代词做主语的定语从句
一般由who,that,which引导,关系代词做主语
Everyone that knows him likes him。认识他的人个个都喜欢他。
The book is about a girl who falls in love with a thief.
关系代词做宾语的定语从句
一般由whom,that,which引导,关系代词做宾语
The fax that I recevied from him yesterday is very important.
Where is the book(which)I bought this moring?[关系代词课省略]
Whose 引导的定语从句
The movie is about a spy whose wife betrays him.这个电影讲的是一个间谍的妻子背叛他的故事。
I would like a room whose window looks out over the sea.
Who which.引导的非限制性定语从句
从句不直接限定主句,只对先行词或主句做附加说明
I prefer to ask John,who is a very clever guy,what I should do.
He said he had no money,which was not true.
As引导定语从句
As we all know,there is no shortcut to learning English.
This book is not such as I expect.
When,where,why
引导的定语从句
This is the house where I was born.
I will never forget the day when I met you.
The reason why I am calling you is to invite you to a party.
介词+which,whom,引导的定语从句
There are two classes from which to choose.
This is the author of whom we have often talked.
倒装与虚拟语气
强调句倒装
It is I who told your boss the truth.
全句倒装
Never,seldom,little,nor,hardly,scarcely,no sooner,not only等否定词在句首时倒装
Nor can I.
As引导的让步状语从句倒装
Student as he is,he has started teaching his own English class.他虽然是个学生,已经开始教自己的英语班了。
虚拟条件句省略If时倒装
Were I in your shoes,I would accepted the job.如果我是你,我就会接受这份工作。
虚拟语气是语法难点,须加强学习
与现在事实相反的虚拟语气
从句中使用一般过去式,主句中用would/should+原型
If I loved you, you would not say that.
If I could help you,I would help you.
If I were you,I would buy a new car.
与过去事实相反的虚拟语气
从句中使用过去完成时,主句中用would/should+have+过去分词
You wouldnot have met her if it hadnot been for me.如果不是我的话,你根本就不会认识她。
I could have done better if I had been more careful.我要是细心电话,是可以做的更好。
I could have shown you around the city if I had know you were in beijing.
If he had know it was going to rain,he would have taken his umberlla to work.
与将来事实相反或实现可能性不大的虚拟语气
从句使用一般过去式
If I were you to miss the party,you would be sorry for it.如果你错过这次聚会,你一定会后悔
虚拟语气错综时间
条件从句与主句表示时间不一致
If Jim had taken my advice,he would feel much better now.
If he knew this,it would have had to be by accident.如果他知道,那一定是无意中知道的。
I Wish虚拟语气
一般用过去式或过去完成时
I wish I had a car.
I wish I had passed the exam.
As if/though中的虚拟语气
一般用过去时或过去完成时
It was as if a huge piece of chocolate had been meltd down.就像一块巨大的巧克力被融化一样。
The child acts as if she were a growup.
省略should的虚拟语句
It is no wonder that she (should)be angry with you.
I demended that I (should) be allowed to call my lawyer.
Do you agree to his suggestion that we go to beijing instead of shanghai?
It is time中的虚拟语气
It is time we left.
It is time you got serious about learning English.
it is high time the governnment did something about the employment problem.
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