正常睡眠对于夜间工作者来说是一项特权

2011-09-27

(美国有线新闻网络)格雷戈里琼斯在他的家人和世界其他地区松弛下来并开始准备睡觉的时候开始工作。

The New Jersey truck driver reports to work at 8 p.m. He loads, stacks and transports vegetables and fruits until 4 a.m. 

新泽西卡车司机在晚上8点汇报工作。他装载,堆叠和运输蔬菜和水果直到凌晨4点。

"I don't get eight hours," Jones said about his workday sleeping habits. "Sleep for me is a privilege. It's a blessing if I can get it." 

“我们没有八个小时的时间,”琼斯讲他的工作日睡眠习惯。“睡觉对我来说是一项特权。如果我能得到它将是一种很好的祝福。"

Night workers like Jones are at higher risk for heart disease, diabetes, and other conditions. With biology beckoning their bodies to sleep during the night, shift workers say they struggle to stay awake no matter how many years they've done it. 

想琼斯这样的夜间工作者患心脏病,糖尿病和其他症状的危险性更高。随着生物学引诱他们的身体在夜间睡觉,轮班工作者说他们不得不挣扎着保持清醒,不管他们已经做了多少年。

When sleep prevails, there can be major consequences for others as well.

当睡眠战胜时,对其他人同样有主要影响。

On March 23, two airplanes landed at Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport shortly after midnight without an air traffic controller. 

在3月23日,两架飞机在午夜之后没有空中交通指挥员的情况下登陆了罗纳德·里根华盛顿国家机场。

The controller, a 20-year veteran who was suspended, told investigators that he had fallen asleep, according to the National Transportation Safety Board. "He had been working his fourth consecutive overnight shift (10:00 p.m. to 6:00 a.m.)" according to a statement from the agency. 

管理员,一个有二十年阅历的缓期老兵,告诉调查者他已经睡着了,根据国际运输安全董事会。“他已经工作了他第四个连续不断的通宵轮班(晚上10点到早上6点)”根据代理处的声明。

Read more air traffic control staffing under scrutiny

读更多详细审查下的的空中交通管理人事。

"Human fatigue issues are one of the areas being investigated," said the board's statement.

“人类疲劳问题是研究领域之一,”董事会声明说。

While it's terrible that the employee fell asleep, it's not fair to solely blame the worker, said Jeanne Geiger-Brown, an associate professor at the University of Maryland School of Nursing who researches shift work and sleep. 

然而糟糕的是雇员睡着了,单独责怪工人是不公平的,珍妮 盖格—布朗,一个研究轮班工作和睡觉的马里兰护理大学副教授说。

About 16 percent of the workforce participate in a type of shift work. 

大约60%的劳力参与一种轮班工作。

"We have to look at the way work is organized so people on the night shift are safe and effective on the job," she said. "The knee-jerk reaction of blaming the person who falls asleep is not really looking at the big picture." 

“我们不得不考虑工作安排的方法,那么夜间轮班的人就会安全有效地工作,”她说。“对责怪睡着的工人的不由自主的迅速反应事实上并不是看大图。”

Accidents tend to happen late in the night or in the early morning -- as it did with the Three Mile Island disaster in 1979 and the Chernobyl disaster in 1986. 

趋向于发生在深夜或清晨的事故——正如1979年的三里岛灾难和1986年的切尔诺贝利灾难。

It's unnatural for humans to be nocturnal -- no matter how much coffee is consumed. 

人成为夜间性的是反常的——不管消耗掉多少咖啡。

"All shift workers get sleepy," said Geiger-Brown. "20% of workers doze off during night shift. People aren't machines."

“所有的轮班工人睡着了,”盖格—布朗。“20%的工人在夜间轮班时打瞌睡。人不是机器。”

Working the night shift can strain the social life and family time. Adjusting between weekends and work days can also wreak havoc on their sleep schedules.

夜晚轮班工作能拉紧社会生活和家庭时间。在周末和工作日之间调整也能在他们的睡眠安排上造成严重破坏。

Humans are wired to sleep at night by their circadian rhythm, a 24-hour cycle that brings about physical, mental and behavioral changes in the body. The circadian rhythm affects sleep cycles, hormone releases, body temperature and various processes. 

人们对于能够根据生理节律在夜晚睡觉感到非常兴奋,一个24小时的周期带来身体里有关生理,心理和行为变化。生理节律影响睡眠周期,荷尔蒙释放,体温和巨大的流程。

"If you're trying to alter your natural body rhythm, we don't adjust perfectly to that," said Dr. Nancy Collop, director of Emory Clinic Sleep Disorders Center. 

“如果你尝试着去改变你的自然的机体节律,我们不能完美的适应那样,”南希—克罗博士——埃默里临床睡眠混乱中心的主管说。

Even when night shift workers try to sleep eight hours during the day to be ready for work, they don't get enough sleep, she said. 

即使夜班工人努力睡到八个小时来为工作做准备,他们也不能获得足够的睡眠,她说。

When Jones, the nighttime trucker based in South Amboy, New Jersey, has a stretch of eight hours in the daytime to sleep, his body won't allow him. 

当琼斯,夜间卡车司机基于南安波伊,新泽西,有多于八小时的白天时间睡觉,他的身体也不允许他这样。

"I will wake up after four hours," he said. "I'm wide awake. I can't go back to sleep. That has to do with the sun is out and the birds are singing."

“我四小时后就会醒来,”他说。“我是清醒的。我没法重新入睡。那与太阳升起和鸟儿鸣叫有关。

There are exceptions, of course. Some people thrive during the dark and are natural night owls, but for most people, staying awake through the night is "trying to do something their bodies don't want to do," said Collop, the president-elect of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

当然,也有例外,有些人夜间精力旺盛,是天生的野猫,整晚熬夜是“努力去做一些他们的身体不愿意做的事情,”克罗——美国睡眠医学院主席当选人说。

"Our circadian rhythm wants us to sleep at night," she said.

“我们的生理节律要求我们在晚上睡觉,"她说。

After 10 years on the night shift, Jones said the pay difference between the daytime shift is worth the sacrifice. But many night shift workers pay a price in their health. 

十年的夜班工作后,琼斯说和白天轮班相比的工资差异是值得这样的牺牲的。但很多夜班工人在他们的健康上面付出了很大的代价。

Night shift workers are at higher risk of cardiovascular diseases, endocrine disorders, diabetes and various types of cancers.

夜班工人患冠心病,内分泌失调,糖尿病和各种各样的癌症的危险性更高。

Jones has tried to avoid those risks by exercising two hours a day. 

琼斯已经通过一天锻炼两小时来避免这些危险。

"I've seen guys who seem to have deteriorated," he said about co-workers. "I see the toll it has taken on them. They've gotten heavier, have different aches and pains. I've learned to deal with it and just not to count the hours."

“我已经看到伙计们看起来已经恶化,”他说到两位同事。“我看到了它给他们带来的代价。它们变得更加沉重,有不同的痛苦和不适。我已经学着不记时地处理它。”

Sleep deprivation could be also be a major factor in obesity. A study 

睡眠剥夺也可以成为肥胖的主要因素之一。

from Columbia University found that people ate up to 329 more calories a day when they were sleep deprived.

一个来自哥伦比亚大学的研究发现当他们缺乏睡眠时,一天消耗超过329的卡洛里。

After Derrick Hayes, a juvenile corrections officer switched to the overnight shift last year, he gained 20 pounds.

德里克—海耶斯之后,一个少年狱警去年转到夜班,他赚到了二十磅。

"You're not even mindful that you're not eating healthy," he said, adding that he started relying on vending machines. "You're just grabbing stuff because you want to eat at night. You get caught up in the lifestyle -- you're just sleeping, you work, you sleep, work, sleep and you're not exercising and eating right."

“你甚至多没有警觉到你的饮食不健康,”他说,补充说他开始依赖自动售货机。“你仅仅暴食,因为你想要在晚上吃。你陷入了这种生活方式中--你仅仅在睡觉,你工作,你睡觉,工作,睡觉,你不锻炼身体也不正确饮食。”

Hayes has lost most of that extra weight and is trying to eat a more balanced diet with fruit and water.

海耶斯已经失去了大部分的额外体重,努力用水果和水平衡膳食。

What could also contribute to metabolic disorders and obesity is that the body's rhythm may be off kilter to properly break down a hamburger at 3 a.m., said Giles Duffield, a University of Notre Dame biologist.

有利于代谢紊乱和肥胖症也有利的是,身体节律也许会失去平衡,在凌晨3点适当毁掉一个汉堡包,贾尔斯-达菲尔德--一个巴黎圣母院生物学家说。

One of the liver's function is to digest food, absorb nutrients and get rid of toxic substances. The liver may not have sufficient level of enzymes to break food down and store nutrients at that time.

肝脏的功能之一是消化食物,吸收营养和排除有毒物质。肝脏也许没有足够量的酶来降解食物,同时吸收营养。

"A lot of enzymes found in the liver are rhythmic," Duffield said. "[The enzymes] are expecting food in the time you'd eat. The liver expects fats and sugars during the daytime not the nighttime."

“大量肝脏里发现的酶是有节律的,”达菲尔德说。“{酶}在你饮食的时候期待食物。肝脏期待脂肪和糖类,在白天而不是在夜晚。”

The Chart: Tips on dealing with sleep and the night shift

图表:关于处理睡眠和夜班的秘诀

But one upside of the night shift is that it gives Hayes flexibility in the day to run errands, pay bills and take his kids to doctor's appointments. 

但是夜班的一个好处是它给了海耶斯每天跑步,买单和带孩子们去拜访医生的灵活性。

"It works for me," Hayes said about his current schedule. "It may not work for everybody. I try to have a positive mindset, keep my mind focused on what I have to do."

“那对我很适用,”海耶斯说到关于他现在的时间安排。“它也许不适用于每个人。我努力保持一个乐观的心态,让我的思想集中在我必须做什么上面。”

本站是提供个人知识管理的网络存储空间,所有内容均由用户发布,不代表本站观点。如发现有害或侵权内容,可拔打24小时举报电话4000070609 或 在线举报
来自:lindan9997  > 我的图书馆
举报
[荐]  原创奖励计划来了,万元大奖等你拿!
猜你喜欢
类似文章
中考英语复习精品资料 阅读练习14
The Secret of Success Is the Sacrifice of Sleep?
双语话健康:研究称长期缺觉没法补(图)
【BBC】Can a lie-in make you healthier
Busy city folk dream of sleep
2010年美国劳动者睡眠时间不足
更多类似文章 >>
生活服务