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2009年高考英语阅读理解专项训练.附详解(生活类)

2009年高考英语阅读理解专项训练.附详解(生活类)

 

(1)

Listen carefully, working people, we would like to tell you something that could save your precious time and money! Best of all, it is free!

It’s “no”.

What do you ask? We’ll say it again: “No”.

Sweet and simple “no”.

Say “no” at your office and see how quickly that pile of work on your desk disappears.

“Saying ‘no’ to others means you are saying ‘yes’ to yourself, ” said Leslie Charles, a professional speaker from East Lansing, Michigan.

“Time is precious. People are spending money buying time. And yet we are willing to give up our time because we can’t say ‘no’.”

Susie Watson, a famous writer, said people who always say “yes” need to say “no” without guilt(内疚)or fear of punishment. “I would rather have someone give me a loving ‘no’ than an obligated(强制的) ‘yes’, ” she said.

Susie Watson says she feels “no” obligation to give an explanation when she says “no” either socially or professionally. Does she feel guilty about it? “Not at all, ” said Watson, who is director of advertising and public relations at Timex Corp in Middlebury, Conneticut. “Most people are afraid of saying ‘no’… My advice is to say ‘yes’ only if you don’t mean ‘no’.”

Watson said “no” is the most effective weapon against wasting time. “Every year there are more demands on your time… Other people are happy to use up your time, ” Watson said. Time saving appears to be “no’s” greatest friend.

“No” can be your new friend, a powerful tool to take back your life. “No” may even take you further in the business world than “yes”.

“No” is power and strength. “No” now seems completely correct. “Saying ‘no’ isn’t easy. But finally it’s greatly liberating,” Charles said. But, he added, a “no” project needs to be worked on every day because it is hard to change long-term habit.

But, he also warns: “Don’t go to extremes. Don’t find yourself saying ‘no’ to everything. In return you should learn to hear ‘no’.”

1. The sentence “Saying ‘yes’ to yourself” means _______.

A. you can have more time to play with others

B. you needn’t care about other’s feeling if you are happy

C. you are selfish and treat others rudely

D. you can deal with your business as you have planned

2. When you say “no” to others you should say it in a _______.

A. secret way   B. polite way

C. proud way     D. guilty way

3. In Watson’s opinion, people can save much time on condition that _______.

A. they say “no” at a suitable time

B. they say “no” as much as possible

C. they are afraid of saying “no”

D. they make others angry at them

4. If a person says “no” to everything, the result he or she receive may be that he or she _______.

A. enjoys a wonderful life     B. makes a lot of money

C. faces difficulty in life  D. forgets to say “yes” in the end

【答案与解析】本文说明了人们在生活中敢于说的重要性,同时也提醒人们应注意不要走向极端。

1. D。推断题。根据Charles 所说的 Saying ‘no’ to others means you are saying ‘yes’ to yourself(否定他人就意味着肯定自己)可推知此题答案为D

2. B。推断题。根据Susie Watson所说的I would rather have someone give me a loving ‘no’ (我倒愿意听一声有爱意的否定)可推知此题答案为B

3. A。推断题。对文章倒数第5段最后一句My advice is to say ‘yes’ only if you don’t mean ‘no’.反过来理解:只有当你不肯定的时候说,可推知此题答案为A

4. C。推断题。从文章最后一段 Charles 所说的 Don’t go to extremes. Don’t find yourself saying ‘no’ to everything 可知,不然的话就会遇到麻烦,故此题答案为C

 

(2)

My husband and children think they are very lucky that they are living and that it’s Christmas again. They can’t see that we live on a dirty street in a dirty house among people who aren’t much good. But Johnny and children can’t see this. What a pity it is that our neighbours have to make happiness out of all this dirt. I decided that my children must get out of this. The money that we’ve saved isn’t nearly enough.

The McGaritys have money but they are so proud. They look down upon the poor. The McGarity girl just yesterday stood out there in the street eating from a bag of candy(糖果)while a ring of hungry children watched her. I saw those children looking at her and crying in their hearts; and when she couldn’t eat any more she threw the rest down the sewer(下水道). Why, is it only because they have money ? There is more to happiness than money in the world, isn’t there?

Miss Jackson who teaches at the Settlement House isn’t rich, but she knows things. She understands people. Her eyes look straight into yours when she talks with you. She can read your mind. I’d like to see the children be like Miss Jackson when they grow up.

1. This passage mainly suggests that the writer _______.

A. is easy to get along with      

B. is unhappy with the life they are living

C. is good at observing and understanding  

D. is never pleased with her neigbours

2. What do you think of McGarity girl?

A. She is proud and hungry.         B. She is selfish and cruel.

C. She is lonely and friendless.     D. She is unhappy and misunderstood.

3. In this text, the writer tries to tell us that _______.

A. money is the key to everything  

B. the more money you have, the less happy you’ll be

C. there is something more important than money

D. when talking to people we should look into their eyes

4. Pick out the one that does NOT describe the writer’s view on money.

A. Why, is it only because they have money?

B. There is more to happiness than money.

C. Miss Jackson isn’t rich, but she knows things.

D. The money we saved isn’t nearly enough.

【答案与解析】本文记述了作者一家所生活的环境以及作者看到一些现象后产生的感想。

1. B。主旨题。文章第1段说:他家所住的房子肮脏、街道肮脏,邻居们以脏取乐,作者决定他的孩子一定要远离这一切,由此可推知此题答案为B

2. B。推断题。根据第2段描述:McGarity一个人在很多小孩面前独自吃糖,吃不完时,把剩余的糖扔进下水道,可知此题答案为B

3. C。推断题。从第2段最后一句:世界上有比钱更使人幸福的东西;第3段:Miss Jackson教书,没有很多钱,但知道很多事情而受作者尊敬,可推知此题答案为C

4. D。推断题。选项ABC都是作者对钱的看法,而只有选项D是事实,可推知此题答案为D

 

(3)

How to protect children Web fans from unsuitable material on-line while encouraging them to use the Internet has long been discussed in the U.S.

For some parents, the Internet can seem like a jungle, filled with danger for their children. But jungles contain wonders as well as dangers and with good guides, some education, and a few precautions(预防措施), the wilds of the Internet can be safely navigated(航行). “Kids have to be on-line. If we tell our kids they can’t have access(机会) to the Internet, we’re cutting them off from their future,” said an expert.

Most kids have started to use search engines. Many of them are great for finding tons of interesting Internet sites, and they can also locate places where you might not want your kids to go. There are search engines designed just for kids. A certain software contains only sites that have been selected as safe. The most popular way to limit access would be to use what is known as a “content screener(过滤器)”. But this can’t be wholly reliable(可靠), and the best thing parents can do is to talk to their kids and let them know what is OK or not OK to see or do on the Internet. Another way is that mum or dad is nearby when the child is surfing(浏览) the Internet.

A few other tips

Don’t put the PC in a child’s room but keep it in an area where mum or dad can keep an eye on things. That also makes the Internet more of a family activity.

Ask your child what he or she has been doing and about any friends they make on-line.

Tell your child not to give on-line strangers personal information, especially like address and phone number.

And tell your children never to talk to anyone they meet on-line over the phone, send them anything, accept anything from them or agree to meet with them unless you go along.

1. The passage is mainly about the subject of _______.

A. American children going on-line             B. Internet in America

C. appreciating Internet                              D. opposing children’s on-line

2. The best way to protect children from improper material is _______.

A. to install(安装) a content screener on the computer

B. to buy some search engines for the children

C. to be nearby when they are surfing the Internet

D. to talk to the children and persuade them to tell right from wrong

3. Which of the following is right according to the passage?

A. Surfing the Internet is the best method of educating children.

B. Children’s not having access to Internet may have effect on their progress.

C. Using a content screener is most reliable for keeping children having access to Internet.

D. Searching engines can help children to select materials fit for them.

4. According to the passage, we can infer that _______.

A. soft wares fit for children want programming

B. a child who is on-line is in danger

C. Internet is a jungle full of danger

D. Internet contains a lot of harmful sites

【答案与解析】本文讲述因特网对孩子既有利也有害,并告诉父母应该如何保护他们的孩子远离那些不适合孩子的网络资料。

1. A。主旨题。文章第1段就是主题句。

2. D。判断题。从第3段倒数第2句话and the best thing parents can do is to talk to their kids and let them know what is OK or not OK to see or do on the Internet可以做出正确判断。

3. B。判断题。从文章内容来看,A C D三项明显与题意不符,而B项内容文中的一位专家则说过。

4. D。主旨题。从第2段和第3段内容可以概括出本文主旨。

 

(4)

Have you ever been afraid to talk back when you were treated unfairly? Have you ever bought something just because the salesman talked you into it? Are you afraid to ask a boy (girl) for a date

Many people are afraid to assert themselves (insist upon their own rights). Dr Robert Alberti, author of Stand Up, Speak Out, and Talk Back, thinks it’s because their self-esteem(自尊) is low. “Our whole set-up makes people doubt themselves,” says Alberti. “There’s always a 'superior' around — a parent, a teacher, a boss — who 'knows better’”.

But Alberti and other scientists are doing something to help people to assert themselves. They offer “assertiveness training” courses (AT). In the AT courses people learn that they have a right to be themselves. They learn to speak out and feel good about doing so. They learn to be aggressive(敢闯, 闯劲儿) without hurting other people.

In one way, learning to speak out is to overcome fear. A group taking an AT course will help the timid person to lose his fear. But AT uses an even stronger motive—the need to share. The timid person speaks out in the group because he wants to tell how he feels. AT says you can get to feel good about yourself. And once you do, you can learn to speak out.

1. In the passage, the writer talks about the problem that _______.

A. some people are too easy-going

B. some people are too timid

C. there are too many superiors around us

D. some people dare not stick up for their own rights

2. The effect of our set-up on people is often to _______.

A. make them distrust their own judgment

B. make things more favorable for them

C. keep them from speaking out as much as their superiors do

D. help them to learn to speak up for their rights

3. One thing AT doesn’t do is to _______.

A. use the need of people to share

B. show people they have the right to be themselves

C. help people to be aggressive at anytime even when others suffer

D. help people overcome fear

【答案与解析】人要有主见,要敢表达出自己的意见,要维护自己的权益。

1. D。判断题。自卑的人不敢说“不”,也不敢当众发表自己的意见,那当然是失去了自己的权力。

2. A。语义理解题。从第2段第3句话 Our whole set-up makes people doubt themselves 可知答案为A

3. C。语义理解题。从第3段最后一句话They learn to be aggressive(敢闯, 闯劲儿) without hurting other people 可以做出正确判断。

 

(5)

 Many people who work in London prefer to live outside it, and to go in to their offices or schools every day by train, car or bus, even though this means they have to get up early in the morning and reach home late in the evening. 

One advantage of living outside London is that houses are cheaper. Even a small flat in London without a garden costs quite a lot to rent. With the same money, one can get a little house in the country with a garden of one’s own. 

Then, in the country one can rest from the noise and hurry of the town. Even though one has to get up earlier and spend more time in trains or buses, one can sleep better at night and during weekends and on summer evenings, one can enjoy the fresh, clean air of the country. If one likes gardens, one can spend one’s free time digging, planting, watering and doing the hundred and one other jobs which are needed in a garden. Then, when the flowers and vegetables come up, one has the reward of one who has shared the secret of Nature. 

Some people, however, take no interest in country things: for them, happiness lies in the town, with its cinemas and theatres, beautiful shops and busy streets, dance-halls and restaurants. Such people would feel that their life was not worth living if they had to live it outside London. An occasional walk in one of the parks and a fortnight’s (two weeks) visit to the sea every summer is all the country they want: the rest they are quite prepared to leave to those who are glad to get away from London every night. 

1. Which of the following statements is NOT true? 

A. People who like country things prefer to live outside the city. 

B. People who work in London prefer to live in the country. 

C. Because of certain disadvantages of living outside London, some people who work in London prefer to live inside London. 

D. Because of certain advantages of living outside London, many people who work in London prefer to live outside London. 

2. One can use the same money for ________ to buy a little house with a garden in the country.

A. getting a small flat with a garden     B. having a small flat with a garden

C. renting a small flat without a garden D. buying a small flat without a garden

3. When the flowers and vegetables in the garden come up, those _______ have the reward of one who has shared the secret of Nature. 

A. who live in the country

B. who have spent time working in the garden

C. who have a garden of their own

D. who have been digging, planting and watering

4. People who think happiness lies in the town would feel that _______ if they had to live it outside London. 

A. their life was meaningless              B. their life was invaluable

C. they didn’t deserve a happy life              D. they were not worthy of their happy life

5. The underlined word rest in the last paragraph refers to ________.

A. the rest time                    B. the rest people

C. the rest of the country              D. the rest of the parks and of the sea

【答案与解析】本文介绍在伦敦工作的人对是在市里居住还是在乡下居住所持的不同看法和态度。

1. B。推断题。根据文章内容:虽然有很多喜欢乡村生活,但文章最后讲也有些人喜欢城市生活,从而可推知此题答案为B

2. C。细节题。根据文章第2段第二、三句可推知此题答案为C

3. B。推断题。根据文章第3段最后两句可知:要是他喜欢花园,在花园里挖土、种植、浇水等等,那么当鲜花和蔬菜生长起来的时候,他就得到了与大自然分享秘密的奖赏,所以选B

4. A。推断题。根据文章最后一段第2Such people would feel that their life was not worth living if they had to live it outside London可推知此题答案为A

5. C。推断题。根据其上文:这些人偶尔去公园散散步后去海边度两周假;本句接着说:其余的就留给那些每天晚上喜欢离开伦敦的人,那么,其余的显然指其余的乡村。从而可推知题答案为C

 

(6)

In every school there is a “top” crowd that sets the pace, while the others follow their lead. Let’s say the top crowd decides that it is smart to wear bright red sweaters. Pretty soon everybody is wearing a bright red sweater. 

There is nothing wrong with that, except the fact that on some people bright red sweater is extremely unbecoming. The situation can even become dangerous, if the top crowd decides that it is smart to drink or to drive cars at seventy miles an hour. Then the people who follow the lead are endangering their lives. They are like the sheep being led to the butcher. 

Now, chances are that you have come across situations like these more than once in your life; chances are that one time or another you probably did something you knew to be wrong. You may have excused yourself by saying, “Gee, the crowd does it.” Well, let the crowd do it, but don’t do it yourself. Learn to say, “No.

Develop your own standards and your own judgment. If you know the crowd is planning something you disagree to, have the courage to bow out mannerly. You’ll have the satisfaction of standing on your own two feet. 

1. Which is the best title for this passage? 

A. Follow the Lead.      B. Top Crowd.      C. Being Yourself.   D. Bright Red. 

2. The author doesn’t think it good wearing red sweaters if ________. 

A. the crowd does it                           B. you can’t afford them

C. you don’t look good in red              D. the situation isn’t safe

3. According to the passage, people who follow the crowd ________. 

A. sometimes do things against their better judgment

B. make mistakes blindly

C. are willing to put their lives in danger 

D. will in the end become pace-setters

【答案与解析】本文分析了生活中的一种随主流的现象,并指出了其危害,劝人们凡事应自己作主。

1. C。主旨题。根据文章最后一段第1Develop your own standards and your own judgment及其全文内容可推知此题答案为C

2. C。细节题。根据文章第2段第1on some people bright red sweater is extremely unbecoming可推知此题答案为C

3. A。推断题。根据文章第3段第1句中的后半部分chances are that one time or another you probably did something you knew to be wrong可推知此题答案为A

 

7

   Among various programmes, TV talk shows have covered every inch of space on daytime television. And anyone who watches them regularly knows that each one is different in style(风格). But no two shows are more opposite in content, while at the same time standing out above the rest, than the Jerry Springer and the Oprah Winfrey shows.

Jerry Springer could easily be considered the king of “rubbish talk”. The contents on his show are as surprising as can be. For example, the show takes the ever-common talk show titles of love, sex, cheating, and hate, to a different level. Clearly, the Jerry Springer show is about the dark side of society, yet people are willing to eat up the troubles of other people’s lives.

Like Jerry Springer, Oprah Winfrey takes TV talk show to its top. But Oprah goes in the opposite direction. The show is mainly about the improvement of society and different quality(质量) of life. Contents are from teaching your children lessons, managing your work week, to getting to know your neighbors.

Compared to Oprah, the Jerry Springer show looks like poisonous waste being poured into society. Jerry ends every show with a “final word”. He makes a small speech about the entire idea of the show. Hopefully, this is the part where most people will learn something very valuable.

Clean as it is, the Oprah show is not for everyone. The show’s main viewers are middleclass Americans. Most of these people have the time, money, and ability to deal with life’s tough problems. Jerry Springer, on the other hand, has more of a connection with the young adults of society. These are 18-to-21-year-olds whose main troubles in life include love, relationship, sex, money and drug. They are the ones who see some value and lessons to be learned through the show’s exploitation.

1. Compared with other TV talk shows, both the Jerry Springer and the Oprah Winfrey are ____.

A. more interesting    B. unusually popular    C. more detailed    D. more formal

2. Though the social problems Jerry Springer talks about appear unpleasant, people who watch the shows____.

A. remain interested in them         B. are ready to face up to them

C. remain cold to them                D. are willing to get away from them

3. Which of the following is likely to be a topic of the Oprah Winfrey show?

A. A new type of robot.               B. Nation hatred.

C. Family income planning.         D. Street accident.

4. We can learn from the passage that the two talk shows_____.

A. have become the only ones of its kind

B. exploit the weaknesses in human nature

C. appear at different times of the day

D. attract different people

【答案与解析】本文比较了美国两位著名的电视谈话节目主持人的不同主持风格。

1. B。推断题。根据文中的 Jerry Springer could easily be considered the king of “rubbish talk” Oprah Winfrey takes TV talk show to its top 两句可以看出这两个电视谈话节目受到了观众不寻常的欢迎。

2. A。推断题。文中的 Clearly, the Jerry Spring show is about the dark side of society, yet people are willing to eat up the troubles of other people’s lives 说明观众对于人民生活上的难处还是很感兴趣的,因为它确实比较真实地反映了人们日常生活中的实事,容易引起观众的共鸣。

3. C。推断题。文中的 The show is mainly about the improvement of society and different quality(质量) of life 说明这一档节目报道的都是社会的正面。而A项是科技报道,属不带感情色彩的客观报道。BD属负面的东西,所以此题答案选 C

4. D。推断题。The show’s main viewers are middleclass Americans Jerry Springer, on the other hand, has more of a connection with the young adults of society 暗示这两个节目分别适应不同年龄、不同层次的观众需要。

 

  (8)

“The first and best of victories is for a man to conquer himself; to be conquered by himself is, of all things, the most shameful,” says Plato. Self-control is at the root of all the advantages. Let a man give in to his impulses (冲动) and feelings, and from that moment he gives up his moral (道德上的) freedom.

A single angry word has lost many a friend. When Socrates found in himself any temper or anger, he would check it by speaking low in order to control himself. If you are conscious of being angry, keep your mouth shut so that you can hold back rising anger. Many a person has dropped dead in great anger. Fits of anger bring fits of disease. “Whom the gods would destroy they first make mad.” “Keep cool”, says George Herbert, “for fierceness (狂怒) makes error a fault.”

To be angry with a weak man is to prove that you are not strong yourself. “Anger,” says Pythagoras, “brings with folly(愚蠢) and ends with regret.” You must measure the strength of a man by the power of the feelings he conquers, not by the power of those which conquer him.

Self-control is man’s last greatest victory.

If a man lacks self-control he seems to lack everything. Without it he can have no patience, no power to govern himself; he can have no self-confidence, for he will always be controlled by his strongest feeling. If he lacks self-control, the very backbone and nerve of character are lacking also.

1. What does the reader learn from the first paragraph?

A. The greatest victory for a man is to conquer everything except himself.

B. One’s moral freedom is based on the control of himself.

C. To control oneself is the most difficult in one’s life.

D. If a person is too stubborn, he will feel most shameful.

2. What is the correct interpretation of “Whom the gods would destroy they first make mad” ?

A. If the gods want to kill you, they make you crazy first.

B. If you always lose your temper, you will soon be finished.

C. If you cannot control yourself, you will become crazy.

D. If you are mad, you will be punished by the gods.

3. If a man lacks self-control, he lacks all of the following EXCEPT _______.

A. the very backbone and nerve of character 

B. the patience and power to control himself

C. strong feelings

D. self-confidence

4. The author’s main purpose in writing this article is to _______.

A. explain that self-control is the key to success

B. teach people how to control everything in order to make a great success

C. distinguish all kinds of self-control and suggest ways for keeping it

D. advise people not to lose temper so as to make and keep more friends

(1—4 BBCA)

【答案与解析】本文介绍了自控力在人生中的重要性。

1. B。推断题。根据第 1 段最后一句如果一个人被情感和冲动所支配,那么他就放弃了道德上的自由可推知此题答案为 B

2. B。推断题。根据文章第 2 段最后一句 …for fierceness (狂怒) makes error a fault为可推知此题答案为 B

3. C。推断题。根据文章最后一段排除选项ABD,可推知此题答案为 C

4. A。主旨题。根据文章内容及倒数第2段可推知此题答案为 A

 

(9)

A punctual person is in the habit of doing a thing at the proper time and is never late in keeping an appointment.

The unpunctual man, on one hand, never does what he has to do at the proper time. He is always in a hurry and in the end loses both time and his good name. A lost thing may be found again, but lost time can never be regained. Time is more valuable than material things. In fact, time is life itself. The unpunctual man is for ever wasting and mismanaging his most valuable asset (财产) as well as other’s. The unpunctual person is always complaining that he finds no time to answer letters, or return calls or keep appointments promptly. But the man who really has a great deal to do is very careful of his time and seldom complains of want of it. He knows that he can not get through his huge amount of work unless he faithfully keeps every piece of work when it has to be attended to.

Failure to be punctual in keeping one’s appointments is the sign of disrespect towards others. If a person is invited to dinner and arrives later than the appointed time, he keeps all the other guests waiting for him. Usually this will be regarded as a great disrespect to the host and all other guests present.

Unpunctuality, moreover, is very harmful when it comes to do one’s duty, whether public or private. Imagine how it would be if those who are put in charge of important tasks failed to be at their proper place at the appointed time. A man who is known to be habitually unpunctual is never trusted by his friends or fellow men.

1. What does the author think is the main difference between a punctual person and an unpunctual person?

A. A punctual person does everything ahead of time while an unpunctual person does everything behind schedule.

B. A punctual person does everything at the right time while an unpunctual person seldom does anything at the correct time.

C. A punctual person has a lot of appointments while an unpunctual person has few appointments.

D. A punctual person has much time to do everything while an unpunctual person has little time to do anything.

2. According to the passage, the main reason that a person is always unpunctual is that _______.

A. he has more work to do than other people

B. he is always in a hurry when he works

C. he doesn’t care much about time

D. he always mismanages and wastes his time

3. According to the third paragraph, when you are invited to dinner, you should arrive there _______.

A. after other guests have arrived

B. before all other guests

C. at the appointed time

D. after the host has got things ready

4. Which of the following statements best describes the harm of unpunctuality?

A. If you are an unpunctual person, you cannot be in charge of any important task.

B. If your friends know that you are unpunctual, they may not see you again.

C. Unpunctuality may bring about heavy losses for both public and private affairs.

D. Unpunctuality may make you miss a lot of appointments and lose friends.

(1—4 BDCC)

【答案与解析】本文论述了守时的重要性。

1. B。推断题。根据文章第 1 段及第 2 段第 1 句可推知此题答案为 B

2. D。推断题。根据文章第2段第5 The unpunctual man is for ever wasting and mismanaging his most valuable asset (财产) as well as other’s 可推知此题答案为 D

3. C。推断题。根据文章第 3 段第 1 Failure to be punctual in keeping one’s appointments is sign of disrespect towards others 及后面的内容可推知此题答案为 C

4. C。推断题。根据文章最后一段可推知此题答案为 C

 

(10)

Five years ago, David Smith wore an expensive suit to work every day. “I was a clothes addict,” he jokes. “I used to carry a fresh suit to work with me so I could change if my clothes got wrinkled.” Today David wears casual clothes-khaki pants and sports shirt-to the office. He hardly ever wears a necktie. “I’m working harder than ever,” David says, “and I need to feel comfortable.”

More and more companies are allowing their office workers to wear casual clothes to work in the United States. The change from formal to casual office wear has been gradual. In the early 1990s, many companies allowed their employees to wear casual clothes on Friday(but only on Friday). This became known as “dress-down Friday” of “casual Friday”. “What started out as an extra one-day-a-week benefit for employees has really become an everyday thing.” said business consultant Maisly Jones.

Why have so many companies started allowing their employees to wear casual clothes? One reason is that it’s easier for a company to attract new employees if it has a casual dress code. “A lot of young people don’t want to dress up for work,” says the owner of a software company, “so it’s hard to hire people if you have a conservative dress code.” Another reason is that people seem happier and more productive when they are wearing comfortable clothes. In a study conducted by Levi Strauss and Company, 85 percent of employers said that they believe that casual dress improves employee morale. Only 4 percent of employers said that casual dress has a negative impact on productivity. Supporters of casual office wear also argue that a casual dress code helps them save money. “Suits are expensive, if you have to wear one every day,” one person said. “For the same amount of money, you can buy a lot more casual clothes.”

1. David Smith refers to himself as having been “a clothes addict,” because _______.

A. he often wore khaki pants and a sports shirt

B. he couldn’t stand a clean appearance

C. he wanted his clothes to look neat all the time

D. he didn’t want to spend much money on clothes

2. David Smith wears casual clothes now, because _______.

A. they make him feel at ease when working

    B. he cannot afford to buy expensive clothes

    C. he looks handsome in casual clothes

    D. he no longer works for any company

3. According to this passage, which of the following statements is false?

    A. Many employees don’t like a conservative dress code.

    B. Comfortable clothes make employees more productive.

    C. A casual clothes code is welcomed by young employees.

    D. All the employers in the U. S. are for casual office wear.

4. According to this passage, which of the following statements is true?

    A. Company workers started to dress down about twenty years ago.

    B. Dress-down has become an everyday phenomenon since the early 1990s.

    C. “Dress-down Friday” was first given as a favor from employers.

    D. Many workers want to wear casual clothes to impress people.

5. In this passage, the following advantages of casual office wear are mentioned in the passage except _______.

A. saving employees’ money

    B. making employees more attractive

    C. improving employees’ motivation

D. making employees happier

【答案与解释】从20世纪90年代起,美国许多公司开始允许员工星期五可以不统一着装上班。现在越来越多的公司许可领员工穿便装上班了,这对调节他们的心情,调动其工作热情有一定的作用。

1. C。语义理解题。大卫自嘲以前是服装爱好者,衣服一起皱,他就得换上备穿的服装。

2. A。语义理解题。从第 1 段最后一句话 “I’m working harder than ever,” David says, “and I need to feel comfortable.” 可找到答案。

3. D。细节判断题。根据最后一段中的 Only 4 percent of employers said that casual dress has a negative impact on productivity 可知还有一些雇主不赞同穿便装上班。

4. C。细节判断题。从第 2 段最后 1 “What started out as an extra one-day-a-week benefit for employees has really become an everyday thing.” 可以做出正确判断。

5. B。推断题。通读最后一段可知选项A(为雇员省钱)B(提高雇员的工作热情)D(使雇主高兴)在原文中均被提到,只有A未被提到。

 

(11)

Since we are social beings, the quality of our lives depends in large measure on our interpersonal relationships. One strength of the human conditions is our possibility to give and receive support from one another under stressful(有压力的) conditions. Social support makes up of the exchange of resources among people based on their interpersonal ties. Those of us with strong support systems appear better able to deal with major life changes and daily problems. People with strong social ties live longer and have better health than those without such ties. Studies over types of illnesses, from depression to heart disease, show that the presence of social support helps people defend themselves against illness, and the absence of such support makes poor health more likely.

Social support cushions stress in a number of ways. First, friends, relatives and co-workers may let us know that they value us. Our self-respect is strengthened when we feel accepted by others in spite of our faults and difficulties. Second, other people often provide us with informational support. They help us to define and understand our problems and find solutions to them. Third, we typically find social companionship supportive. Taking part in free-time activities with others helps us to meet our social needs while at the same time distracting(转移注意力) us from our worries and troubles. Finally, other people may give us instrumental support — money aid, material resources, and needed services — that reduces stress by helping us resolve and deal with our problems.

1. Interpersonal relationships are important because they can _______.

A. make people live more easily

B. smooth away daily problems

C. deal with life changes

D. cure types of illnesses

2. The researches show that people's physical and mental health _______.

A. lies in the social medical care systems which support them

B. has much to do with the amount of support they get from others

C. depends on their ability to deal with daily worries and troubles

D. is related to their courage for dealing with major life changes

3. Which of the following is closest in meaning to the underlined word “cushions” ?

       A. takes place of                                B. makes up of

       C. lessens the effect of                        D. gets rid of

4. Helping a sick neighbor with some repair work in spare time is an example of _______.

       A. instrumental support                       B. informational support

       C. social companionship                      D. the strengthening of self-respect

5. What is the subject discussed in the text?

A. Interpersonal relationships.             B. Kinds of social support.

C. Ways to deal with stress.                 D. Effects of stressful conditions.

【答案与解释】现代社会中的人们各方面的压力很大,所以融洽的人际关系显得很重要。它可以缓解部分压力,增加信息,帮助解决一些日常困难。

1. A。主旨题。虽然选项BCD的内容在文章中都谈到了,但选项A更全面。另一方面,根据文章第1段的第1句也可推知答案为A

2. B。判断题。从第 1 段的最后一句话可以做出正确判断。

3. C。语义猜测题。文章第2段告诉我们人与人之间互相支持和帮助可以从几个方面缓解人的压力。注意文章最后一句中的 reduce 与选项C中的 lessen 大致同义。

4. C。细节题。从文章第 2 段内容,采用排除法,可以得知答案为 C

5. A。主旨题。通读全文可知答案。

 

(12)

LONDON — Life for Cathy Hagner and her three children is set to permanent(永久的) fast-forward.

Their full school day and her job as a lawyer's assistant are busy enough. But Hanger also has to take the two boys to soccer or hockey or basketball while dropping off her daughter at piano lessons or Girl Scout Club.

Often, the exhausted family doesn't get home until 7 pm. There is just time for a quick supper before homework. In today's world, middle-class American and British parents treat their children as if they are competitors racing for some finishing line.

Parents take their children from activity to activity in order to make their future bright. It seems that raising a genius has become a more important goal than raising a happy and well-balanced child.

“Doctors across the country are reporting a growing number of children suffering from stomachaches and headaches due to exhaustion and stress,” says child expert William Doherty of the University of Minnesota.

Teachers are dealing with exhausted kids in the classroom. It's a very serious problem. Many children attend after-school clubs by necessity. But competitive pressures also create an explosion of activities. They include sports, language, music and math classes for children as young as four.

“There is a new parenting trend(趋势) under way which says that you have to tap all your child’s potential(潜能) at a young age; otherwise you will let him down,” says Terry Apter, a Cambridge-based child and adolescent psychiatrist(青少年精神病专家).

“It isn't entirely new: there have always been pushy parents. But what was previously(以前) seen as strange behaviour is now well accepted.”

1. From the second paragraph of this passage we can find that _______.

A. Hagner wastes much time helping her children's lessons

B. Hagner doesn't spend much time on her full-time job

C. Hagner is interested in sports and music

D. Hagner busies herself by following a trend

2. British parents, as the writer described in this passage, _______.

A. treat their children as sports players

B. pay no attention to their children's lessons

C. bring up their children in a simple way

D. give their children little time to develop freely

3. The writer's opinion about after-school clubs is that ________.

A. activities in the country are too competitive

B. children should attend four clubs at a time

C. some clubs result in competitive pressures

D. clubs should have more subjects for school children

4. The last paragraph tells us that in Britain _______.

A. parents used to take their children to every club

B. parents used to be wise on how to raise children

C. parents have all benefited from children’s clubs

D. parents have come to know the standard of education

【答案与解析】现在的英、美中产家庭的父母亲让孩子们参加各种课外俱乐部,学习体育、语言、音乐、数学等,把孩子们变成了学习的机器。

1. D。语义理解题。因为第 2 段就是第 1 段内容的具体化。

2. D。判断题。从文章内容可以看出,在英国,孩子们在学校已经够累了,回到家里,父母亲还要他们参加课外俱乐部的一个又一个活动,孩子们自己发展的空间当然没有了。

3. C。判断题。第 6 段第 4 句话 But competitive pressures also create an explosion of activities 把俱乐部不好的作用讲得清楚明了。

4. B。判断题。从本段第 2 句话 But what was previously(以前) seen as strange behaviour is now well accepted 可以判断出,在英国,过去家长们是知道怎样教育孩子们的。

 

(13)

There are two types of people in the world. Although they have equal degree of health and wealth and other comforts of life, one becomes happy and the other becomes unhappy. This arises from the different ways in which they consider things, persons, events and the resulting effects upon their minds.

People who are to be happy fix their attention on the convenience of things: the pleasant parts of conversation, the well prepared dishes, the goodness of the wine and the fine weather. They enjoy all the cheerful things. Those who are to be unhappy think and speak only of the opposite things. Therefore, they are continually dissatisfied. By their remarks, they sour the pleasure of society, offend(hurt) many people, and make themselves disagreeable everywhere. If this turn of mind was founded in nature, such unhappy persons would be the more to be pitied. The intention of criticizing(批评) and being disliked is perhaps taken up by imitation(模仿). It grows into a habit, unknown to its possessors. The habit may be strong, but it may be cured when those who have it realize its bad effects on their interests and tastes. I hope this little warning may be of service to them, and help them change this habit.

Although in fact it is chiefly an act of the imagination, it has serious results in life since it brings on deep sorrow and bad luck. Those people offend many others; nobody loves them, and no one treats them with more than the most common politeness and respect. This frequently puts them in bad temper and draws them into arguments. If they aim at getting some advantages in social position or fortune, nobody wishes them success. Nor will anyone start a step or speak a word to favor their hopes. If they bring on themselves public objections, no one will defend or excuse them, and many will join to criticize their wrongdoings. These should change this bad habit and be pleased with what is pleasing, without worrying needlessly about themselves and others. If they do not, it will be good for others to avoid any contact(接触) with them. Otherwise, it can be disagreeable and sometimes very inconvenient, especially when one becomes mixed up in their quarrels.

1. People who are unhappy _______.

A. always consider things differently from others

       B. usually are affected by the results of certain things

       C. usually misunderstand what others think or say

D. always discover the unpleasant side of certain things

2. The phrase “sour the pleasure of society” most nearly means “_______”.

       A. have a good taste with social life            B. make others unhappy

       C. tend so scold others openly                            D. enjoy the pleasure of life

3. We can conclude from the passage that _______.

A. we should pity all such unhappy people

       B. such unhappy people are dangerous to social life

       C. people can get rid of the habit of unhappiness

       D. unhappy people can not understand happy persons

4. If such unhappy persons insist on keeping the habit, the author suggests that people should _______.

       A. prevent any communication with them

       B. show no respect and politeness to them

       C. persuade them to recognize the bad effects

       D. quarrel with them until they realize the mistakes

5. In this passage, the writer mainly _______.

A. describes two types of people

B. laughs at the unhappy people

       C. suggests the unhappy people should get rid of the habits of unhappiness

D. tells people how to be happy in life

【答案与解析】生活中有些人拥有相等的健康、财富和生活条件,但由于考虑事情、人物、事件的角度不同,一些人感到幸福,而另一些人则感到不幸福。由于这些不幸福的人处处冒犯别人,其结果只能是处于被孤立的境地。

1. D。判断题。从第 2 段第 4 句话Those who are to be unhappy think and speak only of the opposite things 可以看出另一些人为什么感到不幸福的原因。

2. B。词义猜测题。从该短语后的…offend (hurt) many people, and make themselves disagreeable everywhere 可以猜出 “sour the pleasure of society” 的正确含义。

3. C。判断题。从第 2 段中倒数第 2 句话The habit may be strong, but it may be cured可以判断出人们可以改变不幸福的脾性。

4. A。判断题。从第 3 段中的倒数第 2 句话If they do not(change this bad habit), it will be good for others to avoid any contact(接触) with them 可以看出作者的态度。

5. C。主旨题。本文主要讲的是那些感觉不幸福的人处处冒犯别人,若长期以往,则只能处于被孤立的境地,所以他们应改变自己的习惯。

 

(14)

Traveling can be a way to gain life experiences, especially during Spring Break — a week long school vacation in the United States. But what if you’re a student and don’t have enough money for a trip? Don’t worry. Here are some useful suggestions.

●Save: This probably is the most important preparation for traveling. Cut expenses to fatten your wallet so you’ll have more choices about where to go and how to get there.

●Plan ahead: Don’t wait until the last minute to plan your trip. Tickets may cost more when bought on short notice. Giving yourself several months to get ready can mean security(安全) and savings.

●Do your homework: No matter where you go, research the places you will visit. Decide what to see. Travel books will provide information on the cheapest hotels and restaurants.

●Plan sensibly: Write down what you expect to spend for food and hotels. Stick to your plan or you may not have enough money to cover everything.

●Travel in groups: Find someone who is interested in visiting the same places. By traveling with others you can share costs and experiences.

●Work as you go: Need more money to support your trip? Look for work in the places you visit.

●Go off the beaten path: Tourist cities may be expensive. You may want to rethink your trip and go to a lesser-known area. Smaller towns can have many interesting activities and sights.

●Pack necessary things: The most important things to take are not always clothes: Remember medicine in case you get sick and snacks in case you cannot find a cheap restaurant.

●Use the Internet: The Net can help to save money. Some useful websites include www. Travelocity. com, www. bargains-lowest fare. com and www. Economic travel. com.

By planning sensibly, even students can enjoy the travel. Your travel experiences will be remembered for a lifetime.

1. This passage is about _______. 

A. how to plan your travel                   B. how to travel with enough money

C. how to make your travel interesting  D. how to get life experiences

2. Before your trip, the first thing you should do is _______. 

A. to make a plan of the route              B. to get information in the Internet

C. to save money by spending less        D. to buy tickets in advance

3. The writer advises you _______. 

A. to share costs with any other people        B. not to go to well-known places

C. not to visit dangerous places            D. to buy anything you want to buy

4. During your trip, _______. 

A. you need more shoes than clothes    

B. you shouldn’t look for work all the way

C. you can gain valuable life experiences

D. you should forget to do your homework

【答案与解析】本文是对学生计划旅行所作准备提出的建议。

1. A。主旨题。根据第1段最后句及全文的内容可推知此题答案为A

2. C。推断题。根据第1则建议可推知此题答案为C

3. B。细节题。根据第7则建议可推知此题答案为B

4. C。细节题。根据文章的首句和尾句可知此题答案为C

 

 

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