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中考英语阅读理解解题技巧点拨
中考英语阅读理解解题技巧点拨                                                                                                                          细节理解题阅读指导
阅读理解是中考的必考题型,因为它能全面快速地反映出学生的英语水平。阅读理解题型有很多种,但从命题角度来看,通常可以分为四种:即事实细节题、推理判断题、猜测词义题和主旨大意题。
事实理解题主要考查学生对文章中的细节与具体事实的把握能力,内容涉及询问事实、原因、结果和目的等,属于浅层次的理解题,难度较低。同学们需要在有限的时间内运用略读、扫读、跳读等技巧快速阅读,发现文章中的细节信息,然后遵循由整体到细节的原则,把握作者的思路,按全文—段落—词语的步骤来解题。
一、命题特点
事实细节题的考点非常明确,主要有以下几处:
1、列举信息处常考。
文章中first…second, to begin with, in addition, on one hand, on the other hand等并列关系出现的地方,常会要求考生从所列的内容中,选择符合题干要求的选项。
2、举列与打比方之处常考。
考生要对那些引出例子或比喻的标志词,如as, such as, for example, for instance等加以注意,因为这些词是作者为使自己的观点更具说服力而用来引出具体事例的,这些事例就是常考的细节处。
3、指示代词出现处常考。
这类考题常用来考查学生是否真正了解上下文句子之间的逻辑关系。
4、引用人物论断处常考。
作者为正确表达自己的观点或使论点更有依据,常会引用某些权威人士的论断或采纳其重要的发现。
5、特殊标点符号后的内容常考。
因为特殊标点符号后的内容往往是对前面内容的进一步解释或说明,同学们注意到这些标点,也就注意到了细节。这些特殊符号包括表示解释的破折号、括号和冒号以及表示引用的引号等。
另外,事实细节题的选项也很有特点:通常正确答案不是照搬的原文;干扰选项则正好相反,有的来自原文信息,但不是题目要求的内容 ;有的符合常识,但不符合原文内容;有的与原句内容极为相似,只是在程度上有些变动;有的与原文大相径庭甚至完全相反;也有的是部分正确或部分错误。
二、解题方法
1. 跳读查找法。
这个方法的要点在于先看题干,带着问题读文章。以what, who, where, when, why, how 提问的问题,可以从文章中直接找到答案。同学们做这类题时可以边读边做记号,能加强阅读的针对性,提高做题的准确率,节省宝贵的时间,这是做事实细节题最基本也是最常用的方法。一般来说,细节题主要考查考生对某句话或某几句话的理解,同学们若能根据题干内容从原文中找到相关的句子,然后进行比较和分析,便可确定最佳答案。
另外,运用跳读查找法解题时,同学们要特别注意试题以及选项与原文之间的适当变换。根据近几年的中考题情况来看,很少有直接用原文中的句子进行考查和测试的,通常要进行一定的处理,而这种“处理”主要就是进行语义转换,其中包括同义变换、概念解析、归纳事实等。
例:2011年湖北黄冈卷
I had the meanest (最刻薄的) mother in the whole world. While other kids ate candy for breakfast, I had to have porridge, eggs or toast. When others had Cokes and candy for lunch, I had to eat a sandwich. But at least I wasn’t alone when I was sad. My sister and two brothers had the same mean mother as I did.
(   )1. How many children does the writer’s mother have?
A. Four.         B. Two.        C. Three.        D. Six.
2. 排除法
排序题也属于事实细节题的一种题型,它通常出现在说明文中。这类文章有明显的信息词,如first, to begin with, after that, afterwards, later, next, second, third, then, finally等。按照信息词的提示阅读,可以加快理解的进程。在做细节排序题时,首先要确定首或尾的答案,通常四个选项中会有两个选项的顺序类似,正确答案往往在这两个选项中选择,找到两者的不同之处,回到原文,进行核对,一旦确定,后面的排序就不用再比较了。
例:2011年天津卷
A topiary gardener should make a drawing first. The drawing shows the final shape that the gardener likes. The gardener then chooses a bush for the topiary. It may be one that just planted or one that is already in place.
In June of the plant’s first year, the gardener looks for new leaves. When the leaves grow, it’s time to shape (给……造型) the bottom of the bush. It needs about five years. The top is not trimmed during this time. In the fifth year, the bush grows tall enough for shaping. Then the gardener begins to shape the whole bush.
(   )2. Put the following in the right order according to the passage.
a. The gardener chooses a bush for the topiary.
b. The whole bush grows tall enough for shaping.
c. The gardener begins to shape the bottom of the bush.
d. The gardener draws the shape of a topiary.
A. d→a→b→c     B. b→c→a→d      C. a→d→c→b     D. d→a→c→b
3. 简单计算法
数字计算题也是事实细节题的一种,要求对文章中提到的数据进行简单的加减乘除运算,以便得出符合题目要求的数据。解答这类题目时,考生首先要弄清题干的要求是什么,然后找到与它相关的数字,再对它们进行分析、整合,最后计算出正确答案。
例:2011年上海卷
When we cut down the rainforests, we destroy these forest people, too. In 1900, there were 1,000,000 forest people in the Amazon forest. In 1980, there were only 200,000.
(   )3. The number of the people living in the Amazon forest in 1980 was ________of that in 1900.
A. half         B. one-third         C. two-fifths        D. one-fifth
细节题占阅读理解的比例很大,阅读时要特别注意以下几点:
第一,阅读时,利用这类关键词和词组that is to say, above all, especially, mainly等,把握文章的思路和脉络。另外在问题的选项中表示绝对意义的词first (第一),least (最不),always (总是),never(永不),all(所有),none(一个也不),any(任何) 和表示唯一性的词汇only(只有) , just(仅仅),往往是命题的陷阱,因此要多加注意。
第二,阅读时,必须以原文提供的事实、细节和逻辑关系为依据,切忌把自己的观点和看法与原文或作者的观点、看法混为一谈。
第三,文章中的数字、日期、时间都是设题的重点,此类题目很少是文章中表层出现的数字或日期,通常需要做简单的计算。
阅读能力的提高非一朝之功,需要一个过程。同学们应该持之以恒,进行有计划、有目的的阅读实践,提高阅读能力。
文化类阅读真题练习与解析
(2011年 福建厦门)
Most have heard of the American Prom. This is the senior students’ school leaving party. The British name for the event is a Leavers’ Ball or Leavers’ Dinner, although some UK schools call them Proms, too. In Canada , Ireland and Australia the terms “Grad” or “Formal” are most common and in South Africa it is called a Matric Dance.
Some Matric Dances in South Africa still follow the old British traditions. Before the dance, pupils are given lessons in dancing. School leavers invite a partner to the dance. The girls have dresses especially made for the event. To save costs, the dance is often held in the school hall.
American Proms have become elaborate (精心的) and expensive, complete with luxury hotel ballrooms, live bands and expensive prom dresses. They now include after-Prom activities that often extend into the early morning of the next day.
The Levers’ Ball in the UK is not so formal. The girls also wear ball gowns and the boys, suits. A dinner and disco will be held at a local hotel. Each pupil buys a ticket and can go with a partner or just arrive with friends.
(   )4. We learn from this passage that the Prom is a _____.
A. test              B. game                C. party
(   )5. In Australia, people call “Prom” _____.
A. Leavers’ Ball      B. Grad or Formal        C. Matric Dance
(   )6. The most important activity in the Prom is _____.
A. dancing           B. eating               C. meeting
(   )7. The Matric Dance is often held in the _____.
A. school hall         B. hotel ballroom        C. local restaurant
(   )8. According to this passage, the event in _____ costs the most.
A. the United States    B. the UK              C. South Africa
【参考答案与解析】
1. A。题干的特殊疑问词是how many,文章没有直接点明有几个孩子,但是锁定文章第一段的最后一句My sister and two brothers had the same mean mother as I did,便可得知作者有一个姐妹和两个兄弟,最后还要记得把作者计算在内,这也是很多学生解题时容易忽略的地方,故答案为A。
2. D。从第一段的第一句话make a drawing first,确定d排在首,因此排除B、C选项,将答案锁定在A和D中。由两个选项可知,确定b、c的先后顺序为关键点,由第二段第2句和第5句话,可确定c在前,所以答案为D。
3. D。由文章可知,1900年时在亚马逊森林的人的数量是1,000,000,而1980年人数仅为200,000,200,000是1,000,000的1/5,所以答案为D。
文化类阅读真题练习与解析
本文主要介绍了目前在一些西方国家流行的毕业聚会“Prom”,同时讲述了这一形式在不同国家的具体做法。
4. C。细节理解题。根据第1段第2句“This is the senior students’ school leaving party.”可知正确答案为C。
5. B。细节理解题。根据第1段第4句“In Canada, Ireland and Australia the terms Grad
or Formal are most common”可知,正确答案为B。
6. A。推理判断题。根据第2段第2句Before the dance以及第3句School leavers invite a partner to the dance,以及文中“dance”一词的反复出现,可知跳舞是最重要的活动,所以正确答案为A。
7. A。细节理解题。整个第2段都是对Matric Dance的介绍,根据这段最后一句To save costs, the dance is often held in the school hall.可知,正确答案为A。
8. A。推理判断题。根据第3段第1句“American Proms have become elaborate and expensive, complete with luxury hotel ballrooms, live bands and expensive prom dresses.” 可推断出,美国的毕业聚会花费最多,所以正确答案为A。阅读题材盘点与解题策略(A)
阅读能力是英语考试的重要内容,也是运用英语的主要能力之一。因此掌握阅读技巧很重要。英语文章的题材范围很广,应该运用哪些阅读策略来解题呢?下面我们就重点解析一下中考中常见的七类题材,即:故事类、校园类、历史传记类、文化类、科普环保类、时事热点类以及应用文类。
故事类
从目前全国各省市中考英语阅读理解来看,故事性文体占多数,也是中考的主要得分点。故事类文章又可细分为情感故事、哲理故事、幽默故事和励志故事四类。目前在中考中,这四类故事都是比较常见的。
故事类文章与人物传记有所不同,这类文章一般描述的是某一件具体事情的发生发展或结局,有人物、时间、地点和事件,主要以叙事为主。命题往往从故事的情节、人物或事件之间的关系、作者的态度及意图、故事的前因和后果的推测等方面着手,考查学生对细节的辨认能力以及推理判断能力。
【阅读策略】
1.预测(Predicting):阅读全文之前,先掠读文章标题,特殊字体(斜体,加黑,加粗等)、特殊符号、插图、图表等,以获取文章线索,对作者要说的话题有大概了解。
2.速读(Fast reading):阅读时要注意将注意力集中在文章大意上,不要拘泥于个别不认识的单词。同时还要抓住细节,设身处地根据文章内容揣摩作者的态度和意图,根据情节展开想象,即使是碰到深层理解题也可迎刃而解。
故事类阅读真题解析——(2011江苏·南京)
Elena jogged with her dad in some empty lots (小块地) at the edge of town. These out-of-the-way lots were good places to jog. But the lots were full of rocks and rubbish.
One day, Elena saw a sign on the lots. It said, “New City Park.” Elena was excited. Maybe the park would have a jogging trail!
Elena told her parents about the sign.
“I read about the park in the newspaper,” said Elena’s father. “The city wants volunteers to help clean the area. Then the city will build a soccer field and a playground.”
“Will they build a jogging trail?” Elena asked.
“No, the paper didn’t mention a jogging trail.”
“Well, perhaps if I help clean up the lots, they’ll put in a jogging trail,” said Elena.
On Saturday Elena went to the lots. Many adults were working there. Some were picking up rubbish. Some were moving rocks.
“I want to volunteer,”Elena told a man. “What can I do?”
“This is not a job for children,” said the man. “You’d better go home.”
Elena looked around. She could carry rubbish. She could move rocks. A lady was pulling a bag of rubbish. Elena saw a box of rubbish bags. She took an empty bag.
“I’ll take the bag to the Dumpster,” said Elena. “Here’s a new bag.”
“Thanks,” said the lady. “Keep those new bags coming.”
Elena dragged rubbish bags. She told everyone she was glad to help build the park. She explained that she hoped the park would have a jogging trail.
Elena went to the area every week. Soon everyone knew her and she told everyone how wonderful a jogging trail would be.
Soon the volunteers cleared the lots. The city could start building. The mayor (市长) gave a speech. He showed a drawing of the new park. He told them about the soccer field and the baseball diamond. There would be picnic tables. There would be a playground. The park would even have basketball courts. There was no sign of a jogging trail.
The mayor thanked the volunteers. Then he asked if they had any suggestions. The volunteers said they wanted to build a jogging trail around the park.
They told the mayor how helpful Elena had been and how she wanted a jogging trail. The mayor said, “A jogging trail won’t be hard to build. Let’s do it!”
Everyone clapped and cheered. Elena cheered loudest of all.
(   )1. How did Elena feel at the beginning of the story?
A. Happy and proud.                 B. Sad and shy.
C. Excited and hopeful.               D. Unhappy and disappointed.
(   )2. How did Elena know the city needed volunteers to help clean the lots?
A. Her father told her about it.          B. She read it in the newspaper.
C. She learned it from a sign.           D. She was told by other volunteers.
(   )3. Why did Elena want to help clean the lots?
A. She wanted to play on the playground.
B. She wanted her name in the newspaper.
C. She wanted to work with other volunteers.
D. She wanted the city to build a jogging trail.
(   )4. Why did the volunteers tell the mayor they wanted to build a jogging trail?
A. They needed a park to jog around.
B. They wanted to thank Elena for her help.
C. They thought it was a good place for jogging.
D. They hoped the mayor could jog with them every day.
(   )5. What can be the best title for the story?
A. Elena and a Mayor.               B. Elena and New City Park.
C. Elena and Some Volunteers.        D. Elena and a Jogging Trail.
参考答案与解析:
本文是一篇记叙文,主要讲述Elena每周去他们小镇边上的一个荒芜的地区做志愿者,认真地清理垃圾、捡石子等,她这样做是希望在那儿建一条慢跑小道,最后市长帮助实现了Elena的愿望。
1. C。细节理解题。根据第2段第3、4句Elena was excited. Maybe the park would have a jogging trail! 可知,Elena既兴奋又充满希望,故选C。
2. A。细节理解题。根据第4段的内容可知,Elena知道这个消息,是爸爸告诉她的,故选A。
3. D。推理判断题。根据第7段 …if I help clean up the lots, they’ll put in a jogging trail可知,Elena希望在那里建一条慢跑小道,故选D。
4. B。推理判断题。根据倒数第2段第1句They told the mayor how helpful Elena had been and how she wanted a jogging trail.可知,志愿者们告诉市长Elena在清理垃圾时帮了很大的忙,她的愿望是建一条慢跑小道,故选B。
5. D。主旨大意题。本篇短文主要讲述了Elena是如何帮助志愿者并实现建慢跑小道的愿望的,故选D。
校园类
校园类的文章一般指与青少年相关的文章。这些文章通常涉及学校生活、家庭生活、交友与休闲、学习中遇到的困难或挫折等。此类文章的特点是贴近学生实际、贴近生活,而且内容和词汇相对容易。
校园内外类的文章也可以从体裁上细分为两类:一类是记叙文,主要用来叙述发生在青少年身边的某件事以及此事对他/她的影响。这类文章因为是记录已经发生的事,常用过去时态。另一类则是说明文,主要用平实的语言客观地解释或探讨某些问题,如:学习方法、记忆问题、睡眠、学校规章制度、急救措施等。说明文类的文章时态相对较为统一,多用现在时态。
【阅读策略】
1.辨读(Identifying):通过阅读,明确文章的要点,了解作者围绕文章话题所表达的若干主要观点。
2.猜测(Guessing):通过文章上下文提供的语境线索和构词知识来解读生词词义。
青少年生活类阅读理解真题解析——(2011年 广西·桂林)
Being able to multitaskdoing several things at the same time — is considered (考虑,认为) a welcome skill by most people. But if we consider the situation of the young people aged from eight to eighteen, we should think again.
What we often see nowadays is that young people juggle a larger number of electronic devices (电子产品) as they study. While working, they also surf on the Internet, send out emails, answer the telephone and listen to music on their iPods. In a sense, they are spending a large amount of time in fruitless efforts (努力) as they multitask.
Multitasking is even changing the relationship between family members. As young people give so much attention to their own worlds, they seem to have no time to spend with the other people around them. They can no longer greet family members when they enter the house, nor can they eat at the family table.
Multitasking also has an effect (影响) on young people’s performance at university and in the workplace. When asked about their opinions of the effects of modern gadgets (器具) on their performance of tasks, many young people gave a positive (肯定的) response (回应). However, the response from the worlds of education and business was not quite as positive. Educators feel that multitasking by children has a serious effect on later development of study skills. They believe that many college students now need help to improve their study skills. Similarly, employers (雇主) feel that young people entering the job market need to be taught all over again, as modern gadgets have made it unnecessary (没必要) for them to learn special skills to do their work.
(   )6. What does the underlined word “juggle” most probably mean?
A. Want to buy.                B. Use at the same time.
C. Take the place of.            D. Search information from.
(   )7. In Paragraph 3, the author points out that _____.
A. family members do not greet each other
B. family members do not eat at the family table
C. young people get on well with their families
D. young people hardly communicate with their family members
(   )8. What’s the main idea of the last paragraph?
A. Young people must learn skills for future jobs.
B. Young people benefit (获益) a lot from modern gadgets.
C. Multitasking is an important skill to young people.
D. Multitasking influences young people’s development seriously.
(   )9. Which of the following is TRUE according to the passage?
A. Young people think multitasking is good for their study and work.
B. Employers consider it unnecessary for young people to be taught all over again.
C. Educators feel that young people don’t need to improve their study skills.
D. People from the world of education believe multitasking has a good effect on children’s later study skills.
(   )10. The author develops (阐述) the passage mainly by__________.
A. providing special examples
B. following the natural time order
C. giving out a cause and analyzing (分析) its effects
D. comparing opinions from different worlds
参考答案与解析:
本文揭示了当今电子产品繁荣所带来的严重后果之一:年轻人普遍趋向在同一时间使用多种电子产品,执行多重任务。教育专家和行业主管人士对此的看法如出一辙,认为这会导致年轻人只沉湎于自己的世界,不利于孩子们与其他人交流,也不利于后天学习能力和职场技能的培养。
6. B。词义猜测题。由第2段While working, they also surf on the Internet, send out e-mails, answer the telephone and listen to music on their iPods.可以猜测到,该段首句是表明年轻人同时使用多种电子产品。
7. D。推理判断题。从第3段第第2句...they seem to have no time to spend with the other people around them. They can no longer greet family members when they enter the house, nor can they eat at the family table. 具体阐述了年轻人是如何沉浸在自己的世界,可见他们与家人间几乎没有交流。
8. D。主旨大意题。文章末段引用教育专家和行业主管人士的看法,认为使用多种电子产品,执行多重任务会严重影响青少年后天的学习能力和职场技能的培养和发展。
9. A。细节判断题。在文章第一段提到“年轻人很喜欢能够同时执行多重任务这一技能”,在文章最后一段的第三行,当问及电子产品对执行任务的影响时,many young people gave a positive response.这两个细节分别照应了A选项。
10. C。综合判断题。本文先揭示了当今电子产品繁荣所带来的严重后果之一:年轻人经常在同一时间使用多种电子产品,执行多重任务;后引用教育专家和行业主管人士的看法,分析指出这一事实对于年轻人后天学习能力的培养造成严重的影响。阅读题材盘点与解题策略(B)
阅读能力是英语考试的重要内容,也是运用英语的主要能力之一。因此掌握阅读技巧很重要。英语文章的题材范围很广,应该运用哪些阅读策略来解题呢?下面我们就重点解析一下中考中常见的七类题材,即:故事类、校园类、历史传记类、文化类、科普环保类、时事热点类以及应用文类。
历史传记类
近年来,历史传记类文章在中考阅读理解中所占的比例有所减少,但仍是中考常考的题材之一。历史传记类文章一般可分为人物传记和历史事件两类。人物传记主要涉及名人的生平事迹、趣闻轶事、生活背景、个性特征、成长和奋斗历程等。其特征是内容真实,语言简洁。而历史事件则主要记叙某一重大的历史事件或过去发生的某一件事。
历史传记类阅读文章是以时间的先后或事情的发展为主线,脉络清楚,可读性较强。因此阅读这类文章时应该抓住时间线索来获取有关信息,即主人公在某个时间在做什么,然后通过分析推理或综合归纳的方法进行解题。语言特点一般以过去时为主,合理使用丰富多彩的谓语动词时态。
【阅读策略】
1.排序(Sequencing):对阅读材料展示的情节理顺排序。可以按时间先后、人物出场先后、因果关系或情节发展趋势等顺序来排序。
2.推论(Drawing conclusions):阅读完毕后,对文章中的信息进行过滤,根据相关信息如情节发展、人物个性等推断出结论。
人物历史传记类真题解析——(2011年 广东·广州)
Frankenstein is one of the world’s most famous horror stories. It’s about a doctor who creates a new man from the body parts of dead people and brings it to life. But the experiment goes wrong and the monster kills the doctor and many others. The story has been read by millions since it was first published and in the last hundred years it has been made into dozens of movies. Many people are surprised to learn its writer was a 19-year-old woman, called Mary Shelley.
Mary was born into a rich London family in August 1797. She was educated by her parents and when she was 13 she decided to become a writer. In 1812, she met the famous writer Percy Shelley and they soon got married. Sadly for Mary, their first child died soon after birth in Italy. In her diary, Mary wrote about a dream, “I dreamt that my little baby came to life again – that it had only been cold and that we rubbed it before the fire and it lived.”
In 1816, Percy Shelley and 19-year-old Mary visited the poet Lord Byron at his home in Switzerland. Because of the bad weather they stayed indoors reading horror stories. One night, Byron asked everyone to write their own story. Mary thought of her dream and wrote the story Frankenstein.
Frankenstein was published when Mary was 21, and became a huge success. Many people didn’t think a 19-year-old woman could write so well and believed her husband was the real writer.
Although famous, Shelley’s life was full of sadness. Only one of her four children lived and in 1822 her husband died in a swimming accident. Mary was broken-hearted and decided not to marry again. She devoted herself to her child and continued to write until her death in 1851.
(   )11. What do we know about the story Frankenstein?
A. It was really written by Mary Shelley’s husband.
B. It has been read by millions of people.
C. It was written to remember Shelley’s husband.
D. It is the most famous story in the world.
(   )12. Where was Mary Shelley when she wrote the story Frankenstein?
A. In England.       B. In Italy.       C. In Switzerland.       D. In France.
(   )13. In which order do the following events take place?
a. Bad weather made everyone stay indoors reading horror stories.
b. The story Frankenstein was first published.
c. Mary wrote about a dream in her diary.
d. Mary met the famous writer Percy Shelley.
e. Movies based on the story of Frankenstein were made.
A. a,c,b,e,d          B. d,c,a,b,e       C. c,a,b,d,e            D. b,a,d,c,e
(   )14. How old was Mary Shelley when she died?
A. 43               B. 48           C. 51                 D. 54
(   )15. What can we learn about Mary Shelley from this passage?
A. She experienced a lot of sadness in her life.
B. She wasn’t considered a good writer during her life.
C. She was educated at her local school.
D. She became very rich because of the story Frankenstein.
文化类
文化类文章近年来在中考中的比重呈增加的趋势。题材涉及历史地理、传统习俗、价值观念和生活方式等。体裁以说明文为主,包含部分议论文和少量记叙文,侧重考查学生综合运用语言的能力。
由于文化类文章以说明文为主,大多数文章有清晰的结构,主题句鲜明,一般在第一自然段中就会简要说明文章的主要内容,有一些文章还会采用小标题的方式对每个自然段进行概括。因此阅读时,同学们要抓住主题段或主题句,领会文章主旨。
【阅读策略】
记笔记(Note-taking):同学们在阅读时,可以边阅读边记录或勾画出文章中的重要信息,如主题段或主题句、时间、地点等。
文化类阅读模拟训练
What is your zodiac (生肖) animal? According to the Chinese lunar calendar (农历), 12 animals mark 12 different years. It is the basis of the Chinese zodiac. Nowadays, Chinese zodiac animals have worldwide fame and are increasingly popular among western people.
The zodiac is an important part of Chinese culture. People believe that the characteristics (特点) of a zodiac animal influence the personality of every person born in that year. For example, people born in the Year of the Tiger are considered powerful and brave.
Zodiac animals also have some social functions. When people think it is not proper to ask: “How old are you”, they may change their question to “What is your zodiac animal?” With this question, you can figure out roughly which year someone was born and the person’s age.
Zodiac animals are not special to China. Many countries share a similar zodiac culture with China. For example, in the Japanese zodiac, a wild boar (野猪) takes the place of a pig and the Vietnamese (越南的) zodiac has a cat instead of a rabbit.
But have you ever wondered how these 12 animals were chosen to represent each year? According to legend, the Jade Emperor (玉皇大帝) invited all the animals to join him for Chinese New Year. Only 12 animals went to see him. As a reward he named a year after each one in the order they arrived. The ox would have been the first to arrive, but the rat sat on his back and jumped off just before they arrived to come in first place.
(   )16. The characteristics of a zodiac animal may influence the ___________ of every person born in that year.
A. appearance    B. personality      C. hobby          D. education
(   )17. “What’s your zodiac animal?” is a question used to find a person’s __________.
A. age          B. name           C. job            D. weight
(   )18. In the Japanese zodiac, we don’t see the zodiac animal: _____________.
A. wild boar     B. rabbit           C. dragon         D. pig
(   )19. According to the last paragraph, we know that _____ was the first animal to arrive.
A. ox           B. rat             C. pig            D. cat
(   )20. The best title for this passage is _____________.
A. The story of the Chinese zodiac     B. The story of zodiac animals
C. The story of the Jade Emperor      D. The story of people’s birthdays
科普环保类
科普环保类文章常是介绍科学知识、生活常识和环境保护方面的短文。阅读此类短文要以现象或事物为中心进行思考,理解现象产生的原因、条件和客观规律等。同时要抓住事物的特征、用途和相互关系等。
科普环保类文章一般为说明文,从结构上看大致可分为三个部分:第一部分一般是文章的首段,主要用来提出文章的主题,即文章想要阐述、说明的主要内容;第二部分是文章的主体,可由若干个段落组成,对文章的主题进行展开说明;第三部分是结尾段,对文章的主题进行归纳总结。这类文章多用一般现在时,而且一般多使用客观性词语表述。有时为了强调客观性,也常使用被动语态。
从近几年的中考来看,科普环保类的文章越来越与人们的实际生活相接近。由于此类文章缺乏故事情节,很多同学对此类文章感到费解。但一般的科普类文章都是就事论事,需要逻辑推理和想象的时候较少,因此此类阅读题也没有同学们想象中的那么难,只要多加训练,就能较好地答题。
【阅读策略】
1. 概要(Summarizing):阅完材料后,将所阅材料浓缩,摘要,做出所阅材料的书面或口头梗概。
2. 组织(Organization):阅读后根据阅读内容,识别观点、人物、事件之间的关系以及文章的结构关系。如:时间关系、比较或对比关系、相关关系及因果关系等。
科普环保类阅读真题解析——(2011年 山东·烟台)
As space science develops, man has learned more and more about space. Space is not only amazing but also dangerous. While working in space, spacemen are facing danger as well as success.
Scientists have found out that the radiation (辐射) is the greatest danger to spacemen in space. When spacemen are working in space, they are in danger of the radiation from the sun and other stars, which is bad for their health. The harm of the radiation won’t be found until their children even grandchildren are born. Some special medicine may work a little, but no really effective medicine has been found so far.
Space rubbish is also thought to be a great danger to spacemen. It’s reported that there were 9,000 man-made things flying in space. About 30% of these are satellites, 10% are spaceships, and the rest are space rubbish. An explosion (爆炸) in space in 1999 made a cloud of 300,000 fragments, each at least 4mm in size. A small piece of these even knocked a spaceship window and caused some damage (损坏).
Scientists are watching and reporting any possible danger all the time. They are working to deal with space rubbish. Although space is really dangerous, it interests many people on the earth. In the near future, it may become possible for people to spend a few days in a space hotel. We may even choose to leave the earth and live in space in a few years. So we should do something to help improve the space environment.
(   )21. ______ shows the man-made things in space in the correct way.
A.              B.               C.              D.
(   )22. The radiation from the sun and other stars is ______ to spacemen.
A. good          B. helpful        C. useful         D. harmful
(   )23. The underlined word “fragments” means “______”.
A. 碎片         B. 泡沫          C. 烟雾         D. 飞碟
(   )24. The passage talks about ______ kinds of danger in space.
A. two           B. three          C. four           D. five
(   )25. Which of the following is TRUE?
A. Scientists have found out ways to solve any problem in space.
B. Every one of us can have a travel to space in ten years.
C. The harm of the radiation may be found in the spacemen’s children.
D. Space is really dangerous, so it doesn’t interest anyone on the earth.
参考答案与解析:
本文是一篇人物传记,主要记叙了世界最畅销的恐怖小说《弗兰肯斯坦》的作者玛丽·雪莱的生平。
11. B。细节理解题。根据第1段第4句The story has been read by millions since it was first published.可知,原文中的millions就是指“数以百万计的人”,即选B。
12. C。推理判断题。根据第3段第1句…Mary visited the poet Lord Byron at his home in Switzerland.可知拜伦家在Switzerland (瑞士), 后来又因为天气不好,就一直住在那里。根据第3段第3句Byron... write their own story,于是Mary创作了这部小说。综合这一切,小说应该创作于Byron位于Switzerland的家,选C。
13. B。推理判断题。人物传记常常按照时间顺序构成文章。根据第2段第3句In 1812, she met the famous writer Percy Shelley and they soon got married. (d项)、 第2段第5句In her diary, Mary wrote about a dream. (c项)、第3段第2句Because of the bad weather they stayed indoors reading horror stories. (a项)、第4段第1句Frankenstein was published when Mary was 21. (b项)、小说出版后才能翻拍成电影(e项),排序为d,c,a,b,e,选B。
14. D。推理判断题。根据第2段第1句Mary was born into a rich London family in August 1797. 以及第5段第4句She … continued to write until her death in 1851.可知,Mary生于1797年,卒于1851年,1851-1797=54, Mary享年54岁,选D。
15. A。细节理解题。根据第5段第1句Although famous, Shelley’s life was full of sadness.可知,选A。
参考答案与解析:
本文主要讲述的是中国属相的相关知识。作者介绍了属相的意义和代表动物,以及中国属相的来历和传说,同时横向比较了其它国家属相的相同和相异之处,体现了文化差异。
16. B。细节理解题。根据第3段第2句“People believe that the characteristics of a zodiac animal influence the personality of every person born in that year.”可知正确答案为B。
17. A。推理判断题。根据第3段第2句 ‘When people think it is not proper to ask: How old are you’, they may change their question to ‘What is your zodiac animal?’ With this question, you can figure out roughly which year someone was born and the person’s age.”可知,从属相可以大致推断出一个人的年龄,所以正确答案为A。
18. D。细节理解题。根据第4段第3句“For example, in the Japanese zodiac, a wild boar takes the place of a pig and the Vietnamese zodiac has a cat instead of a rabbit.”可知正确答案为D。
19. B。推理判断题。根据文章最后一句“The ox would have been the first to arrive, but the rat sat on his back and jumped off just before they arrived to come in first place.” 可知,牛本来应该是第一个到达,结果被老鼠抢先了,所以正确答案为B。
20. A。主旨大意题。本文介绍的是中国的属相,属相动物的故事和玉皇大帝的故事都是属相故事的一部分,所以正确答案为A。
参考答案与解析:
本文是一篇科普说明文。作者主要讲了太空辐射和太空垃圾的危害性,但同时也指出,危险的太空也可能成为人们今后的旅游目的地,所以保护太空环境很重要。
21. B。 细节理解题。根据第3段第3句About 30% of these are satellites, 10% are spaceships, and the rest are space rubbish.可知太空中man-made things (人造物体)所占比例是30%的卫星, 10%的太空船和60%的太空垃圾。只需看懂图表,找准数字就能选出正确答案。
22. D。细节理解题。根据第2段第1句Scientists have found out that the radiation is the greatest danger to spacemen in space.可知,辐射对宇航员是有害的。
23. A。 猜测词义题。根据第3段最后两句话An explosion in space in 1999 made a cloud of
300,000 fragments, each at least 4mm in size. A small piece of these even knocked a spaceship window and caused some damage.可推测出,fragments 是由爆炸引起的(碎片),(每片)至少有4毫米,后面的small piece也给出暗示,故能选出答案A。
24. A。细节理解题。根据第2、3段的段首主题句Scientists have found out that the radiation is the greatest danger to spacemen in space.和Space rubbish is also thought to be a great danger to spacemen.可知本文一共谈及了两个危险。
25. C。判断正误题。根据第2段的第3句The harm of the radiation won’t be found until their children even grandchildren are born.得知,C选项的说法是正确的。阅读题材盘点与解题策略(C)
阅读能力是英语考试的重要内容,也是运用英语的主要能力之一。因此掌握阅读技巧很重要。英语文章的题材范围很广,应该运用哪些阅读策略来解题呢?下面我们就重点解析一下中考中常见的七类题材,即:故事类、校园类、历史传记类、文化类、科普环保类、时事热点类以及应用文类。
时事热点类
时事热点类文章通常是新闻报道,这类文章有一共同特点,即都是由标题(Headline)、导语(Lead)、主体(Main body)、背景(Background)和结尾(End)五部分构成。标题是新闻报道中心思想高度而又精辟的概括;导语位于新闻报道的首段,高度概括新闻事实;主体则对导语概括的新闻事实进行详细叙述;新闻背景是指新闻事实之外,对新闻事实或新闻事实的某个部分进行解释或补充的材料;结尾往往是新闻事件的结果或动态展望,也是中心思想的概括并常常与新闻导语相呼应。
新闻报道中的导语非常重要,它位于文章的第一段,通过它点出新闻的主题,五个W和一个H (When, Where, Who, What, Why和How)通常是构成一则完整消息不可缺少的要素。文章往往呈现出“倒金字塔”的特征,因此读懂首句或首段至关重要。
另外,从句的使用也是此类文章的一大语言特色,因为从句信息量大,适合新闻报道的要求。此外,大量的副词和插入语的使用也是此类文章的特点。为使文章更客观、更具信服力,常用The study said…, Scientists believe that… Experts said…, It’s reported that…, According to the survey…等语言。
【阅读策略】
设问(Questioning):阅读过程中,对材料所提供信息如when, where, who, how, why等进行提问,将信息迅速提炼出来。
时事热点类阅读真题解析——(2011年 山东·德州)
Lots of people make it as their aim to get to the top of Mount Qomolangma. Mark is one of them. The difference between Mark and other climbers is that he lost both his legs when climbing New Zealand’s highest mountain, Mount Cook. He was caught in a big ice hole and he had to have his legs cut below the knees after he was saved. But that couldn’t make Mark lose heart, who has become the first person with man-made legs to reach the top of Mount Qomolangma.
From the top of the world’s highest mountain, Mark called his wife to say he made it. His wife, Anne got the phone when she was sleeping. She couldn’t hear him clearly on the phone. She was unable to say when he reached the top but thought it was around mid-day. She also said his “legs” didn’t work well sometimes, so her husband was carrying a spare leg and repair tools.
Mark used to be a mountain guide before his accident. He said it was not important that no one like him had ever reached the 8,844-meter mountain.
“I’m not doing this to be the first. I have been climbing most of my life and I just feel Mount Qomolangma is really a great aim. I want to send a message that I can do anything better.”
(   )26. What was the difference between Mark and other climbers?
A. He went mountain-climbing with his wife.
B. He climbed mountains with man-made legs.
C. He was the first to climb Mount Qomolangma.
D. He was the best guide of the world.
(   )27. Mark’s wife thought it was _________ on Mount Qomolangma when Mark reached its top.
A. noon            B. morning         C. mid-night          D. evening
(   )28. Which of the following is the correct order in Mark’s story?
a. Losing both of his legs.
b. Working as a mountain guide.
c. Falling into an ice hole on Mount Cook.
d. Reaching the top of Mount Qomolangma.
A. c a b d          B. c a d b            C. b c a d            D. b a c d
(   )29. Mark’s story makes us believe that he is a _____ man.
A. polite           B. brave             C. kind             D. clever
(   )30. Mark told us that he cared much about _____.
A. being the first                        B. climbing higher
C. keeping healthy                      D. being a guide
参考答案与解析:
本文是一篇记叙文,讲述了登山爱好者Mark在截肢后仍然成功攀登珠穆朗玛峰Mount Qomolangma的故事。
26. B。细节理解题。从文章第1段第3句The difference between Mark and other climbers is that he lost both his legs when climbing...可知,Mark在爬山时失去了双腿,故答案为B。
27. A。细节理解题。根据第2段第4句She was unable to say when he reached the top but thought it was around mid-day.可知,Mark的妻子以为是“中午”,故答案为A。
28. C。细节理解题。根据文章内容可知,Mark最初是一名导游,然后在登Cook山时掉进冰窟才截肢,最后装上假肢勇攀登高峰,按照事件的先后顺序,故答案为C。
29. B。推理判断题。根据第1段第5、6句…he had to have his legs cut below the knee...But that couldn’t make Mark lose heart…可知,虽然事故夺去了Mark的双腿,但是他并没有灰心失望,而是带着义肢勇攀珠峰,足以证明Mark的勇敢坚毅。
30. B。主旨大意题。通过最后一段Mark的话我们可知,他在乎的不是能否得第一,而是把攀登高峰当成生命的一部分,来证明自己虽已截肢,但是仍然可以把事情做好,故答案为B。
应用文类
应用文是人们日常生活、工作、生产和学习中处理各种公私事务时经常使用的一种文体,是人们传递信息和交流感情的工具。应用文的使用范围非常广泛,种类繁多。其中包括书信(或电子邮件)、日记、通知、便条、收条、借条、影讯、球讯、书评、寻物启事、招领启事、海报、贺卡、新闻报道、广告、指南、网络论坛、产品说明以及各类图表等。
应用文类阅读理解主要考查同学们搜集信息、寻找有用信息和整理信息的能力,要求同学们能利用所学英语知识来解决现实生活中的实际问题,达到利用信息和输出信息的目的。正因如此,近几年中考几乎每一份英语中考题中都会有应用文的一席之地。
应用文类的阅读材料为了突显其实用性,遣词造句一般言简意赅,较少出现复杂的长句或生僻的动词、形容词或副词,而代词的使用也易于理解,因此应用文阅读中,词汇语义题出现较少,除此之外,文章结构题也非应用文阅读的考查重点,这是由于应用文为了使读者易于理解文章内容,因此结构均较简单。
【阅读策略】
1. 略读(Skimming):为了获取文章要点和段落大意而快速阅读的策略。
2. 寻读(Scanning):同样是快速阅读,但不是获取大意,而是寻找文章中特定信息,具体细节或对某观点、看法的一些支持性例证。
应用文阅读真题解析——(2011年 内蒙古·包头)
Classified Advertisements
If you need our service, please call 5161982.
For Rent
Excellent Room for girls. Single, $115 a month. Double, $180 a month. Call 5160594.
Family Home, 3 bedrooms, large. Call 3125766.
Youth Paradise, room for boys, $100 per person. Call 8830553.
For Sale
Coat for man, size 42, 1 year old, $85, after 6 pm, call 8830553.
Color TV, size 21, $150; Mp3 player, $45: Recorder, $25. Call 6963749.
Help Wanted
If you can find a few hours during the day to look after 2 schoolage children, please call 3133694.
A magazine needs a reporter. He or she should be good at writing in Chinese.
Experience needed. Call 5201314.
Lost
A yellow bag with a mobile phone and some books was left behind the library. Will the finder come to Class 1, Grade 3?
Found
A black jacket was found on the playground yesterday afternoon (June 21). Will the owner please ring 3655488?
(   )31. If you want to make an advertisement, which number will you call?
A. 5160594.         B. 3655488.      C. 5161982.     D. 3133694.
(   )32. Mary wants a room for herself, which room should she choose?
A. Family Home.     B. Double.       C. Single.       D. Youth Paradise.
(   )33. The title “Classified Advertisements” probably means _____.
A. advertisements only for students to read
B. advertisements giving us useful information
C. advertisements that are very important
D. advertisements divided into different groups
(   )34. If you want to find a part-time job, you will read _____.
A. Help Wanted       B. For Sale      C. For Rent      D. Lost
(   )35. If a person has $115, he can buy _____.
A. TV and recorder                   B. coat and recorder
C. coat and Mp3 player                D. TV and Mp3 player
参考答案与解析:
本文由五则小广告组成,内容包括房屋租赁、商品出售、招聘和失物招领等。
31. C。细节理解题。根据广告前面的If you need our service, please call 5161982.可知,要想做广告,要打5161982这个电话,所以选C。
32. C。细节理解题。根据第一则广告中的Excellent Room for girls. Single, $115 a month.可知,玛丽想租个房子自己住,应该选Single。
33. D。词义猜测题。Classified Advertisements是广告的标题,由于广告包括房屋租赁、商品出售、招聘和失物招领等,由此可知,它的意思应该是我们常说的“分类广告”,所以选D。
34. A。细节理解题。根据第三则广告中的If you can find a few hours during the day to look after 2 schoolage children, please call 3133694.可知,要想找兼职工作,要阅读Help Wanted这则广告。
35. B。数字计算题。根据第二则广告可知电视的价格是$150,所以用115美元是不够买电视的,排除A、D项;B项coat $85,recorder $25,共$110;C项coat $85,Mp3 player $45,共130,钱不够。所以选B。
总之,同学们不管面对何种题材的文章,要灵活运用以上阅读策略,切忌生搬硬套,让自己陷入被动。阅读是中考的重点,阅读能力是影响其他题型(如完形填空、单选)答题效果的关键因素。同学们总复习时应始终以阅读为重点,可以选择一些短文仔细阅读,并练习准确做题。但要防止“题海”战术,注意提高阅读速度和解题技巧,重点要放在对所做阅读理解题的分析上,总结错误的原因,这样阅读能力才能得到提高。
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