1.Allegory (寓言)
A tale in verse or prose in which characters, actions, or settings represent abstract ideas or moral qualities.
A story suggests another story.  An allegory is present in literature whenever it is clear that the author is saying, "By this I also mean that." In practice, allegory appears when a progression of events or images suggests a translation of them into conceptual language. Allegory is thus a technique of aligning imaginative constructs, mythological or poetic, with conceptual or moral models. During the Romantic era a distinction arose between allegory and symbol. With Coleridge, symbol took precedence: "an allegory is but a translation of abstract notions into picture-language," but "a symbol always partakes of the reality which it makes intelligible."
2.Alliteration (头韵)
Alliteration is the repetition of the same initial consonant sound within a line or a group of words.Alliteration is thus the opposite of rhyme, by which the similar sounds occur at the ends of the syllables.
3.Allusion (典故)
A reference to a person, a place, an event, or a literary work that a writer expects the reader to recognize and respond to.
4.Analogy (类比)
A comparison made between two things to show the similarities between them.
5. Antagonist (反面主角)
The principal character in opposition to the protagonist or hero or heroine of a narrative or drama.
6. Antithesis (对仗)
The balancing of two contrasting ideas, words, or sentences.
7. Aphorism (警句)
A concise, pointed statement expressing a wise or clever observation about life.
8. Aside (旁白)
A piece of dialogue intended for the audience and supposedly not heard by other actors on stage.
9.Apostrophe (呼语)
The direct address of an absent or imaginary person or of a personified abstraction, especially as a digression in the course of a speech or composition.
10.Assonance (类韵)
The repetition of similar vowel sounds, especially in poetry.
11.Atmosphere (氛围)
The prevailing mood or feeling of a literary work.
12. Autobiography (自传)
A person‘s account of his or her own life.
13. Ballad (民谣)
A narrative poem in short stanzas, with or without music,often of folk origin and intended to be sung. The term derives by way of French ballade from Latin ballare, "to dance," and once meant a simple song of any kind, lyric or narrative, especially one to accompany a dance. As ballads evolved, most lost their association with dance, although they kept their strong rhythms. Modern usage distinguishes three major kinds: the anonymous traditional ballad (popular ballad or folk ballad), transmitted orally; the broadside ballad, printed and sold on single sheets; and the literary ballad (or art ballad), a sophisticated imitation of the traditional ballad.
14. Ballad Stanza (民谣诗节)
A type of four-line stanza, the first and the third lines have four stressed words or syllables; the second and fourth lines have three stresses.
15. Biography (传记)
A detailed account of a person‘s life written by another person.
16.Blank Verse (无韵体诗)
Verse written in Unrhymed iambic pentameter. See also Meter. In the 1540s Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, seems to have originated it in English as the equivalent of Virgil's unrhymed dactylic hexameter. In Gorboduc (1561), Thomas Sackville and Thomas Norton introduced blank verse into the drama, whence it soared with Marlowe and Shakespeare in the 1590s. Milton forged it anew for the epic in Paradise Lost (1667).
17. Caesura (休止)
A break or pause in a line of poetry.
18. Canto (章)
One of the principal divisions of a long poem..
19. Caricature (夸张讽刺)
The use of exaggeration or distortion to make a figure appear comic or ridiculous.
20. Characterization (人物刻画)
The means by which a writer reveals the personality of a character.
21. Classicism (古典主义)
A movement or tendency in art, literature, or music that reflects the principles manifested in the art of ancient Greece and Rome.
22. Climax (高潮)
The point of greatest intensity, interest, or suspense in a narrative.
23. Comedy (喜剧)
A dramatic work that is often humorous or satirical in tone and usually contains a happy resolution of the thematic conflict.
24. Conceit (奇想)
A kind of metaphor that makes a comparison between two startlingly different things. Any fanciful, ingenious expression_r_r or idea, especially one in the form of an extended metaphor.
25. Conflict (冲突)
A struggle between two opposing forces or characters in a short story, novel, play, or narrative poem.
26. Connotation (外延)
All the emotions and associations that a word or phrase may arouse.
27. Consonance (辅音韵)
The repetition of consonants or a consonant pattern, especially at the ends of words.
28. Couplet (双韵体)
A unit of verse consisting of two successive lines, usually rhyming and having the same meter and often forming a complete thought or syntactic unit.
29. Heroic couplet (英雄双韵体)
A couplet written in iambic pentameter is called a heroic couplet.
30. Denotation (内涵)
The literal or dictionary meaning of a word.
31. Denouement (结局)
The final resolution or clarification of a dramatic or narrative plot.
32. Diction (措辞)
A writer‘s choice and use of words in speech or writing, particularly for clarity, effectiveness, and precision.
33. Dissonance (不协和)
A harsh or disagreeable combination of sounds; discord.
34. Dramatic monologue (戏剧独白)
A kind of narrative poem in which one character speaks to one or more listeners whose replies are not given in the poem.
35. Elegy (挽歌)
A poem or song composed especially as a lament for a deceased person.
36. Emblematic Image (象征)
A verbal picture of figure with a long tradition of moral or religious meaning attached to it.
37. Epic (史诗)
An extended narrative poem in elevated or dignified language, celebrating the feats of a legendary or traditional hero and of reflecting the values of the society from which it originated. Many epics were drawn from an oral tradition and were transmitted by song and recitation before they were written down. Later on this literary genre was written down by the poets, such as Paradise Lost, Paradise Regained. Two of the greatest epics are Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey. While in British literary history, the national epic is Beowulf. During the Renaissance, critical theory emphasized two assumptions:
38. Epigram (隽语)
A concise, clever, often paradoxical statement, susally in the form of a poem.
39. Epigraph (引语/开场白)
A motto or quotation at the beginning of a literary composition, setting forth a theme.
40. Epilogue (结语/收场白)
A short addition or concluding section at the end of a literary work, often dealing with the future of its characters. Also called In this sense, also called afterword
结语:文学作品结束时简短的附加或总结性章节,常常关于作品人物的未来也作 在此意义上也可称作 afterword.
41. Epiphany(顿悟)
A moment of illumination, usually occurrs at or near the end of a work.
42. Epitaph(墓志铭)
An inscription on a tombstone or in a short poem in memory of someone who has been dead.
43. Epithet (表述词语)
A term used to characterize a person or thing。
44. Essay (散文)
A short literary composition on a single subject, usually presenting the personal view of the author.
45. Exemplum (说教故事)
A tale, usually inserted into the text of a sermon, that illustrates a moral principle.
46. Fable (寓言)
A brief story that is told to present a moral, or practical lesson.
47. Farce (轻喜剧)
A kind of comedy based on a ridiculous situation, often with stereotyped characters.
轻喜剧: 一种以可笑的情节的为基础的喜剧,通常包含固定的角色。
48. Figurative Language (象征性语言)
Language that is not intended to be interpreted in a literal sense.
49. Figure of Speech (比喻)
A word or an expression that is not meant to be interpreted in literal sense.
50. Flashback(倒叙)
A literary device in which an earlier event is inserted into a narrative.
51. Foil (陪衬)
A character who sets off another character by contrast.
52. Foreshadowing (铺垫)
The use of hints or clues in a narrative to suggest what will happen later.
53. Free verse (自由诗体)
Verses that has neither a metrical pattern or an regular pattern.
54. hyperbole (夸张法)
A figure of speech in which exaggeration is used for emphasis or effect
55. Iambic pentameter (五步抑扬格)
A poetic line consisting of five verse feet, with each foot an iamb--that is, an unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable.
56. Imagery(意象)
Words or phrases that create pictures, or images, in readers‘ mind.
57. Incremental repetition (递进重复)
The repetition of a previous line or lines, but with a slight variation each time that advances the narrative stanza by stanza.
58. Inversion (倒装句)
The technique of reversing, or inverting the normal word order of a sentence.
59. Invocation (开篇祷告)
A call to a muse, god or spirit for inspiration at the beginning of an epic or other poem.
60. Irony (反语)
A contrast between what is stated and what is really meant, or between what is expected to happen and what actually happened.
61.Kenning (隐喻语)
A figurative, usually compound expression used in place of a name or noun, especially in Old English and Old Norse poetry. for example, storm of swords is a kenning for battle.
隐喻语:尤指古英语和古斯堪的纳维亚语诗中,一种比喻性的,在表名字或名词时常用的复合表达方式,如“剑的风暴” 是 “战争” 的隐喻语
62. Lyric (抒情诗)
A poem, usually a short one, that expresses a speaker‘s personal thoughts or feelings.
63. Masque (假面剧)
A dramatic entertainment, usually performed by masked players representing mythological or allegorical figures, that was popular in England in the 16th and early 17th centuries.
64. Melodrama (情节剧)
A drama that has stereotyped characters, exaggerated emotions, and a conflict that pits an all-good hero or heroine against an all-evil villain.
65. Metaphor (隐喻)
A figure of speech in which a word or phrase that ordinarily designates one thing is used to designate another, thus making an implicit comparison.
66.Metaphysical Poetry (玄学派诗歌)
The poems of 17th-century English poets, whose verse is characterized by an intellectually challenging style and extended metaphors comparing very dissimilar things.It is also featured by verbal wit and excess, ingenious structure, irregular meter, colloquial language, elaborate imagery, and a drawing together of dissimilar ideas.
67. Meter (格律)
A generally regular pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in poetry.
68. Metonymy (转喻)
A figure of speech in which one word or phrase is substituted for another with which it is closely associated.
69. Mock epic (讽刺史诗)
A comic literary from that treats a trivial subject in the grand, heroic style of the epic.
70. Motif (主旨)
A recurrent thematic element in an artistic or literary work.
71. Motivation (动机)
The reasons, either stated or implied, for a character‘s behavior.
动机: 引发作品中人物行为的理由。
72. Myth (神话)
A story, often about immortals and sometimes connected with religious rituals, that is intended to give meaning to the mysteries of the world.
73. Narrative Poem (叙事诗)
A poem that tells a story.
74. Narrator (叙述者)
One who narrates or tells a story.
75. Naturalism (自然主义)
The practice of describing precisely the actual circumstances of human life in literature, it is the extreme form of realism.
76. Neoclassicism (新古典主义)
A revival in literature in the late 17th and 18th centuries, characterized by a regard for the classical ideals of reason, form, and restraint styles.
77. Novel (小说)
A book length fictional prose narrative, having many characters and often a complex plot.
78. Octave (八行诗)
An eight-line poem or stanza.
79. Ode (颂)
A complex and often lengthy lyric poem, written in a dignified formal style on some lofty or serious subject.
80. Onomatopoeia (拟声)
The formation or use of words by imitating the sounds associated with the objects or actions they refer to.
81. Oxymoron (矛盾修饰法)
A rhetorical figure in which combines or contradictory terms are combined, as in a deafening silence and a mournful optimist.
82. Paradox (似非而是)
A statement that reveals a kind of truth, although it seems at first to be self-contradictory and untrue./An apparently untrue or self-contradictory statement or circumstance that proves true upon reflection or when examined in another light.
83. Parallelism (并行)
The use of phrases, clauses, or sentences that are similar or complementary in structure or in meaning.
84.Parody (模仿诗文)
A humorous imitation of a work of art for comic effect or ridicule./Originally, "a song sung beside" another. From this idea of juxtaposition arose the two basic elements of parody, comedy and criticism. As comedy, parody exaggerates or distorts the prominent features of style or content in a work. As criticism, it mimics the work, borrowing words or phrases or characteristic turns of thought in order to highlight weaknesses of conception or expression_r_r.
85. Pastoral (田园诗)
A kind of poem, that deals in an idealized way with shepherds and rustic life.
86. Pathos (悲怅)
The quality in a work of literature or art that arouses the reader‘s feelings of pity, sorrow, or compassion for a character.
87. Personification (拟人)
A figure of speech in which inanimate objects or abstractions are endowed with human qualities or are represented as possessing human form./The technique of treating abstractions, things, or animals as persons. A kind of metaphor, personification turns abstract ideas, like love, into a physical beauty named Venus, or conversely, makes dumb animals speak and act like humans.
88. Plot (情节)
The plan of events or main story in a novel, narrative or drama.
89. Point of view (视角)
A point from which an author presents a story.
90. protagonist (主角)
The main character in a drama or other literary work.
91. Psalm (赞美诗)
A song or lyric poem in praise of God.
92. Pun (双关语)
The use of a word or phrase to suggest two or more meanings at the same time.
93. Quatrain (四行诗)
A stanza or poem of four lines.
94. Realism (现实主义)
The representation in art or literature of objects, actions, or social conditions as they actually are, without idealization or presentation in abstract form./The theory that reason, rather than revelation or authority, provides knowledge, truth, the choice of good over evil, and an adequate understanding of God and the universe. 
95. Refrain (副句)
A phrase, verse, or group of verses repeated at intervals throughout a song or poem, especially at the end of each stanza.
副句,副歌:一个短语、一句诗或一组诗句在一首歌或诗中每隔一段重复一次, 尤其在每个诗节的结尾处
96. Rhyme (压韵)
The repetition of sounds in two or more words or phrases that appear close to each other in a poem. /(sometimes Rime, an older spelling) The effect created by matching sounds at the ends of words. The functions of rhyme are essentially four: pleasurable, mnemonic, structural, and rhetorical. Like meter and figurative language, rhyme provides a pleasure derived from fulfillment of a basic human desire to see similarity in dissimilarity, likeness with a difference.
97. Rhythm (格律)
The arrangement of stressed and unstressed syllables into a pattern.
98. Romance (传奇故事)
An imaginative literature that is set in an idealized world and that deals with heroic adventures and battles between good and devil.
99. Romanticism (浪漫主义)
An artistic and intellectual movement originating in Europe in the late 18th century which emphasis on the individual‘s expression of emotion and imagination, departure from the attitudes and forms of classicism.
100. Satire (讽刺文)
A kind of writing that holds up to ridicule or contempt the weakness and wrongdoings of individuals, institutions or humanity in general./Poking corrective ridicule at persons, types, actions, follies, mores, and beliefs
101. Scansion(韵律分析)
The analysis of verse into meter patterns.
102.Sestet (六行诗)
A six-line poem or stanza.
103. Setting (背景)
The time, place, and circumstances in which a narrative, drama, or novel takes place.
104. Simile (明喻)
A comparison made between two things through the use of a specific word of comparison.
105. Soliloquy (独白)
A dramatic or literary form of discourse in which a character reveals a character‘s thoughts when alone or unaware of the presence of other characters.
106. Song (歌)
A short lyric poem with distinct musical qualities, normally written to be set to music.
107. Sonnet (十四行诗)
A 14-line verse form usually written in iambic pentameter.
108. Spenserian Stanza (斯宾塞诗体)
A nine line stanza with the following rhyme scheme ababbcbcc.
109. Stream of consciousness (意识流)
The style of writing that attempts to imitate the natural flow of a character‘s thoughts, feelings reflections, and mental images as the character experiences them.
An author‘s characteristic way of writing ,determined by the choice of words, the arrangement of words in sentences, and the relationship of sentences to one and another.
111. Suspense (悬念)
The quality of a story, novel, or drama that makes readers uncertain or tense about the outcome of events.
112. Symbol (象征)
Any object, person, place, or action that has a meaning in itself and also stands for something larger than itself, such as a quality, attitude, or belief.
113. Symbolism (象征主义)
A literary movement in the late19th century, characterized by the use of symbols to represent things.
114. Synecdoche (提喻法)
A figure of speech in which a part is used for the whole.
115. Terza rima (三行体)
An Italian verse form consisting of a series of three line stanzas in which the middle line of each stanza rhymes with the first and the third lines of the following stanza.(aba bcb cde, ect.)
116. Theme (主题)
The general idea or insight about life that a writer wishes to express in a literary work.
117.Tone (调子)
The attitude a writer takes toward his or her subject, characters, or audience.
118. Tragedy (悲剧)
In general, a literary work in which the protagonist meets an unhappy or disastrous end.
119.Wit (睿智)
A brilliance and quickness of perception combined with a cleverness of expression.
120.Exposition (评注)
The part of a narrative or drama, in which important background information is revealed.
121. Sentimentalism
Sentimentalism originated in the 18th century, and was a direct reaction against the cold, hard commercialism and rationalism that had dominated people’s life since the last decades of the 17th century. Besides, it seemed to have appeared hand in hand with the rise of realistic English novel. Sentimentalism often relates to sentimentality and sensibility in some literary works such as Richardson’s Pamela; Goldsmith’s The Vicar of Wakefield; Sterne’s A Sentimental Journey through France and Italy. In Poetry, we have Thomas Gray’s “An Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard”, Goldsmith’s “The Deserted Village”, and Cowper’s “Task”, not mention the various odes of sensibility which flourished in the later half of the century.   
122. Humanism
Humanism refers to the main literary trend and is the keynote of English Renaissance. Humanists took interest in human life and human activities and gave expression_r_r to the new feeling of admiration for human beauty, human achievement.
123. Renaissance
It is a cultural movement of the rising bourgeoisie. The key word for it is humanism, which emphasizes the belief in human beings, his environment and doings and his brave fight for the emancipation of man from the tyranny of the church and religious dogmas. It originally indicates a revival of classical arts and learning after the dark ages of medi obscurantism. Its aim is to get rid of those old feudalist ideas in medi time and introduce new ideas that express the interests of the rising bourgeoisie. Shakespeare, Spenser, and Marlowe are all famous literary figures in this period.
124. Enlightenment
Enlightenment is a progressive intellectual movement, which swept over England and other lands in Western Europe in the 18th century. Enlightenment freed and reformed the thinking of man. Enlighteners strove to clear away the feudal remnants and replace them by bourgeois ideologue.
125. Run-on Line
A line of poetry whose sense does not stop at the end, with punctuation, but runs on to the next line.
126. End Rhyme
Rhyme at the end of a line of verse (the usual placement), as distinguished from initial rhyme, at the beginning, or internal rhyme, within the line.
127. Foot
The metrical unit; in English, an accented syllable with accompanying light syllable or syllables.
128. Genre
A term often applied loosely to the larger forms of literary convention, roughly analogous to "species" in biology. The Greeks spoke of three main genres of poetry-lyric, epic, and drama. Within each major genre, there are sub-genres. In written forms dominated by prose, for example, there is a broad distinction between works of fiction (e.g., the novel) and thematic works (e.g., the essay). Within the fictional category, we note a distinction between novel and romance, and other forms such as satire and confession. The object of making these distinctions in literary tradition is not simply to classify but to judge authors in terms of the conventions they themselves chose.
129. Humor
A humor is a theory used by Ben Jonson in his play writing. A humor, according to the physiology and the psychology of the time, was one of the liquid constituents of the body, each of which had its peculiar emotional propensity. Every character in Jonson’s comedies personifies a definite humor, so his characters are like caricatures.
130. Internal Rhyme
Rhyme within a line, rather than at the beginning (initial rhyme) or end (end rhyme); also, rhyme matching sounds in the middle of a line with sounds at the end.
131.Cavalier Poets
Cavalier poets were often courtiers who stood on the side of the king, and called themselves “sons” of Ben Jonson.  The Cavalier poets wrote light poetry, polished and elegant, amorous and gay, but often superficial. They mostly dealt in short songs on the flitting joys of the day, but underneath their light-heartedness lays some foreboding of impending doom. This spirit of pessimism and cynicism is typical of the aristocratic class in decline.
Any reflection of Plato's philosophy, particularly the belief in the eternal reality of ideal forms, of which the diversities of the physical world are but transitory shadows.
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