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每日中华文化专词双译|妙悟

一种特定情境下形成的心理体验状态,在精神自由放松的状态下,直接领会、感知美,然后呈现于诗歌作品中,从而使诗歌整体的美感超越具体的语言文字,达到极高的审美层次。它能够在瞬间的心理体验中,达到物我两忘的境界,领悟诗歌的本质和永恒的精神之美。在佛、道、玄三家的义理中,“妙”指思维方面的精微玄奥,而“悟”则是一种体验式的、不依赖逻辑推理的认识方式。禅宗提倡通过禅修来达到本心清净、空灵清澈的精神境界,这种境界与文艺审美的精神境界有着密切的联系。南宋严羽《沧浪诗话》借用禅宗的思想,对“妙悟”在诗歌创作中的特征与功用作了充分的阐发,开创以禅喻诗的先河,影响较大。“妙悟”也影响了中国古代的绘画与书法。

This term refers to an inner experience one gains under special circumstances. When the mind is so relaxed and peaceful, it allows one to develop an intimate appreciation and understanding of beauty and then express it in a poem. The beauty of the poem thus inspired transcends words and creates an intense aesthetic experience. Subtle insight enables the reader to appreciate the essence and lasting beauty of a poem by creating a spontaneous experience so engrossing that one becomes oblivious to both himself and the outside world. According to Buddhist, Daoist, and Metaphysical principles, 'subtle' refers to the minute and profound nature of thinking, whereas 'insight' is an intensely personal experience derived not from logical reasoning. Chan Buddhism promotes meditation as a way to return to the mind's original tranquility and thus achieve a clear and simple state of mind. Such a state of mind comes from literary and artistic experience. In 'Canglang's Criticism of Poetry,' literary critic Yan Yu of the Southern Song Dynasty dealt extensively with the function and features of subtle insight in poetry writing by drawing on Chan philosophy. This book is the first one to apply Chan terms to critical writing on poetry and has thus gained great influence. The concept of subtle insight has also influenced traditional painting and calligraphy in China.

引例 Citations:

◎凝神遐想,妙悟自然,物我两忘,离形去智。(张彦远《历代名画记》卷二)

凝聚心神,自由畅想,对自然之美的体悟达到绝妙境地,忘记了外在世界,也忘记了自身,脱离形体的束缚,抛弃知识的局限。

By concentrating one's mind and freeing one's thoughts, one can reach such a fascinating state in appreciating the beauty of nature as to become oblivious to the outside world and one's own self, totally free from the constraints of physical forms and limitations of knowledge. (Zhang Yanyuan: Notes on Past Famous Paintings)

◎大抵禅道惟在妙悟,诗道亦在妙悟。且孟襄阳学力下韩退之远甚,而其诗独出退之之上者,一味妙悟而已。(严羽《沧浪诗话·诗辨》)

一般说来禅修最重要的原则是妙悟,作诗最重要的原则也是妙悟。比如孟浩然的学问才力远远比不上韩愈,但是孟浩然的诗却比韩愈水平高,就是因为他一心妙悟。

Generally speaking, the most important principle of meditation is to achieve subtle insight, and this is the most important principle underlying poetry writing as well. For example, while Meng Haoran is no equal to Han Yu in terms of knowledge and talent, his poems surpass those of Han Yu because he is able to create subtle insight. (Yan Yu: Canglang's Criticism of Poetry)

(推荐:教育部 国家语委 供稿:北京外国语大学 外语教学与研究出版社)

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